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Muslim (Book of) Prayer

Chapter 1 – FAITH إيمان     

 

 

 

ARTICLES OF FAITH

Eemaan Mufaṣṣal - Faith in Detail    ايمان مُفصَّل

أٰمَنْتُ بِاللهِ  وَ مَلآئِكَتِهٖ وَ كُتُبِهٖ وَرُسُلِهٖ  وَالْيَوْمِ الْأٰخِرِ وَالْقَدْرِ خَيْرِهٖ وَ شَرِّهٖ مِنَ اللهِ تَعَالٰى وَالْبَعْثِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ .

aamantu bi’Llaahi wa malaa’ikati-hee wa kutubi-hee wa rusuli-hee wa’l-yawmi’l-aakhiri wa’l-qadri khayri-hee wa sharri-hee mina’Llaahi taʻaalaa wa’l-baʻthi ba‘da’l-mawt.

“I believe in Allah, in His Angels, in His (Revealed) Books, in His Messengers and in the Last Day and in the fact that all good or bad destiny is decided by Allah the Exalted, and in the Resurrection after Death.”

 

Eemaan Mujmal - Faith in Brief         ايمان مُجمَل

أٰمَنْتُ بِاللهِ كَمَا هُوَ بِأَسْمَآئِهٖ وَ صِفَاتِهٖ وَقَبِلْتُ جَمِيْعَ أَحْكَامِهٖۤ إِقْرَارٌ ۢ بِاللِّسَانِ وَ تَصْدِيْقٌ ۢ بِالْقَلْبِ .

aamanti bi’Llaahi kamaa huwa bi-asmaa’i-hee wa ṣifaati-hee wa qabiltu jamee‘a aḥkaami-hee iqraaru’m bi’l-lisaani wa taṣdeequ’m bi’l-qalb.

“I believe in Allah as He is with all His names and all His attributes, and I accept all His commands, by acknowledging them with my tongue and confirming them with my heart.”

THE SIX DECLARATIONS OF FAITH

1.    First Declaration: of Sanctity - Kalimah Ṭayyibah                                                             كَلِمَة طيِّبَة

لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللهِ .

laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu muḥammadu’r-rasoolu’Llaah (ṣall Allaahu ‘alayhi wa-sallam).

“There is no god but Allah (I); Muḥammad (e) is the Messenger of Allah (I).”

2.    Second Declaration: of Testimony - Kalimah Shahaadat                                      كَلِمَة شهادة

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَّاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهٗ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهٗ وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهٗ وَرَسُوْلُهٗ .

ash’hadu al’laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu waḥda-hoo laa shareeka la-hoo wa ash’hadu anna muḥammadan ‘abdu-hoo wa rasoolu-Hoo.

“I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, He is alone, He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muḥammad (e) is His servant and Messenger.”

3.    Third Declaration: of the Glory of Allah - Kalimah Tamjeed                            كَلِمَة تمجيد

سُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَ لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ  وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ . وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيْمِ .

subḥaana’Llaahi wa’l-ḥamdu li’Llaahi wa laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu wa’Llaahu akbar, wa-laa ḥawla wa-laa  quwwata illaa bi’Llaahi’l-‘aliyyi’l-‘aẓeem.

“Glory is to Allah, All Praise is to Allah, there is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest.  There is no power (to save us from sin) and no might (to enable us to do good) except from Allah, the Most High, the Great.”

4.    Fourth Declaration: of Oneness - Kalimah Tawḥeed                                         كَلِمَة توحيد

لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهٗ لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهٗ ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ يُحْيٖ وَ يُمِيْتُ وَ هُوَ حَيٌّ لَّا يَمُوْتُ أَبَدًا  أَبَدًا . ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ ، بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُ . وَ هُوَ عَلٰى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ .

laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu waḥda-hoo laa shareeka la-hoo la-hu’l-mulku wa la-hu’l-ḥamdu yuḥyee wa yumeetu wa huwa ḥayyu’l-laa yamootu abadan abada(n), zu’l-jalaali wa’l-ikraam, biyadi-hi’l-khayr, wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shay’in qadeer.

“There is no god but Allah. He is alone. He has no partner. His is the dominion, and for Him is all praise.  He gives life and causes to die, and He is ever-living and will never die.  In His control is all good and He is all-powerful over everything.”

5.    Fifth Declaration: of Repentance - Kalimah Istighfaar                                     كَلِمَة اِستِغفار

أَسْتَغْفِرُاللهَ رَبِّىْ مِنْ كُلِّ ذَنْۢبٍ أَذْنَبْتُهٗ عَمَدًا أَوْ خَطَأً سِرًّا أَوْ عَلَانِيَةً وَّ أَتُوْبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنَ الذَّنْۢبِ الَّذِىْۤ أَعْلَمُ وَ مِنَ الذَّنْۢبِ الَّذِىْ لَاۤ  أَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوْبِ وَ سَتَّارُ الْعُيُوْبِ وَ غَفَّارُ الذُّنُوْبِ وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيْمِ .

astaghfiru’Llaaha rabbee min kulli dhambin adhnabtu-hoo ‘amadan aw khaṭa’an sirran aw ‘alaaniyyatan-wa atoobu ilayhi mina’dh-dhambi’lladhee a‘lamu wa mina’dh-dhambi’lladhee laa  a‘lamu, inna-ka anta ‘allaamu’l-ghuyoobi wa sattaaru’l-‘uyoobi wa ghaffaaru’dh-dhunoobi wa laa ḥawla wa laa quwwata illa bi’Llaahi’l-‘aliyyi’l-‘aẓeem.

“I seek forgiveness of Allah, my Lord, of all sins I have done intentionally or unintentionally, secretly or openly. I repent to Him for the sins I know of and also those sins that I do not know of, indeed You are the knower of all of the unseen, the One who hides human weaknesses and the forgiver of sins, and there is no power (to save us from sin) and no might (to enable us to do good) except from Allah, the Most High, the Great.”

6.    Sixth Declaration: of Rejecting Disbelief - Kalimah Radd al-Kufr         كَلِمَة رَدُّالكُفر

أَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّىْۤ أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ شَيْئًا وَّ أَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِهٖ وَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لَاۤ  أَعْلَمُ بِهٖ تُبْتُ عَنْهُ وَ تَبَرَّأْتُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَالشِّرْكِ وَالْكِذْبِ وَالْغِيْبَةِ وَالْبِدْعَةِ وَالنَّمِيْمَةِ وَالْفَوَاحِشِ وَالْبُهْتَانِ وَالْمَعَاصِىْ كُلِّهَا وَ أَسْلَمْتُ وَ أَقُوْلُ لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللهِ .

Allaahumma  innee aʻoodhubi-ka min an ushrika bi-ka shay’an-wa ana a‘lamu bi-hee wa astaghfiru-ka limaa laa a‘lamu bi-hee tubtu ‘anhu wa tabarra’tu mina’l-kufri wa’sh-shirki wa’l-kidhbi wa’l-gheebati wa’l-bid‘ati wa’n-nameemati wa’l-fawaaḥishi wa’l-buhtaani wa’l-ma‘aaṣee kullihaa wa aslamtu wa aqoolu laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu muḥammadu’r-rasoolu’Llaahi (ṣall Allaahu ‘alayhi wa-sallam).

“O Allah! I seek protection with You from intentionally associating any partner with You. I beg Your forgiveness for (the sins I have committed) that I am not aware of. I repent for it and make myself free of disbelief and polytheism, telling lies, backbiting, dissent, defamation, indecencies, false accusation and all the sins.  I have accepted Islam and declare ‘there is no god but Allah; Muḥammad (e) is the Messenger of Allah.”


Chapter 2 - PURITY      طهارة

 

Legal Status of Purity

In the Holy Qur’an, Allah I says:

يٰۤـأَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ أٰمَنُوْۤا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلٰوةِ فَاغْسِلُوْا وُجُوْهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلٰى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوْا بِرُءُوْسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ .

yaa ayyuha’lladheena aamanoo idhaa qumtum ila’ṣ-ṣalaati fa’ghsiloo wujooha-kum wa aydiyakum ila’l-maraafiqi wa’msaḥoo bi-ru’oosikum wa arjulakum ila’l-ka‘bayn.

“O You who believe! when you get up to perform prayer, wash your faces and your hands (including forearms) up to the elbows, wipe over your heads, and (wash) your feet up to (and including) the ankles.” (5:6)[1]

Ablution (Wudu’)   وُضوء

Method of Performing Ablution)

One should:

1.      Make the intention to purify himself and to seek reward.

2.      Recite:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ

bismi’Llaahi’r-raḥmaani’r-raḥeem.

“I begin with the name of Allah, the Divinely-Compassionate, the Ever-Merciful.”

3.      Wash both hands up to the wrists three times.

4.      Wash the mouth out three times; use a tooth-stick (miswaak)[2].

5.      Draw water into the nostrils three times and clean them with the left hand.

6.      Wash the face three times – nothing should remain dry between:

a.       the forelock of the hair of the head and the bottom of the chin, and

b.      between both earlobes.

The beard is combed through using wet fingers.[3]

7.      Wash both hands up to and including the elbows three times; first the right and then the left.

8.      Wet both hands with fresh water and wipe over the head once:

 

a.       draw first three fingers of both hands back from the forehead to the nape,

b.      draw palms of both hands from the nape to the front of the head,

c.       wipe the inner ears with the index fingers and behind the ears with the thumbs,

d.      wipe the backs of the fingers over the nape.

 

9.      Wash both feet up to and including the ankles, using the left hand and wiping wet fingers in-between the toes.

This procedure contains obligations, sunnahs and recommended acts, which are detailed in the following.

Obligations (Farḍs) in Ablution

Ablution is not valid without performing its obligations; and they are four:

1.      Washing the face.

2.      Washing both hands up to and including the elbows.

3.      Wiping a quarter of the head (with wet fingers).

4.      Washing both feet up to and including the ankles.

Sunnahs in Ablution

1.      Make the intention.

2.      Begin by reciting:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ

bismi’Llaahi’r-raḥmaani’r-raḥeem.

“I begin with the name of Allah, the Divinely-Compassionate, the Ever-Merciful.”

3.      Wash both hands up to the wrists.

4.      Wash the mouth.

5.      Brush the teeth (with a tooth-stick, etc.)

6.      Draw water into the nostrils.

7.      Comb the beard with wet fingers.

8.      Wipe the whole head (with wet hands).

9.      Wipe the ears (with wet fingers).

10.  Make the ablution in a continuous motion, in such manner that the previously washed part does not dry (before washing the next part).

11.  Maintain the sequence.

12.  Wash each washable part three times.

Recommendations in Ablution

1.      Wipe the nape (with wet fingers).

2.      Face the qiblah.[4]

3.      Sit in a clean and lofty place.

4.      Rub the parts when pouring water over them.

5.      Do not seek undue assistance from another.

6.      Do not talk of a worldly nature.

7.      Drink some of the leftover water.

8.      Recite the Second Declaration (of Testimony) upon completion of ablution, then recite:

أَللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِىْ مِنَ التَّوَّابِيْنَ وَ اجْعَلَنِىْ مِنَ الْمُتَطَهِّرِيْنَ وَاجْعَلْنِىْ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِيْنَ .

Allaahumma’j‘alnee mina’t-tawwaabeena wa’j‘alnee mina‘l-mutaṭahhireena wa’jʻalnee min ʻibaadika’ṣ-ṣaaliḥeen.

“O Allah! Make me of those people who repent, make me of those who are pure (and clean) and count me amongst Your righteous servants.”

What Nullifies Ablution

1.      Emission of anything from the passages of urine and faeces.

2.      Blood or pus emitting and flowing from the body.

3.      Vomiting a mouthful.

4.      Sleeping lying down or with support.

5.      Laughing whilst in prayer.

6.      Falling unconscious.

7.      Water from an infected eye.

Miscellaneous Issues

1.      If one breaks wind or experiences anything that invalidates ablution is required to perform ablution afresh; the previously washed parts have become unwashed.

2.      It is not permitted to touch the Holy Qur'an without having performed ablution.

3.      It is sunnah for the one in major ritual impurity (janaabah) to perform ablution before eating or sleeping.

4.      If blood or pus emits from the body but it does not flow, ablution is not nullified.

5.      If one’s wound constantly bleeds or emits pus, he experiences incessant dripping of urine or he experiences constant wind, he is required to perform fresh ablution for the time of each prayer only; his prayer is valid because he is legally excused. This ablution of his remains with the time for that respective prayer.

Bathing (Ghusl)غُسل   

وَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوْا .

wa in-kuntum junuban fa’ṭ-ṭahharoo.

“And if you are in a state of major ritual impurity[5], purify yourselves.” (5:6)[6]

Method of Bathing

1.      Wash both hands up to and including the wrists.

2.      Wash the private parts.

3.      Remove any impurity there may be on the body.

4.      Perform ablution.

5.      Pour water three times over:

a.       the right shoulder,

b.      the left shoulder,

c.       the head, and then

d.      the whole body.

6.      Rub (the parts washed) and

7.      Do not speak to anyone.

Obligations in Bathing

There are three obligations in bathing:

1.      Gargling, in such a manner that water reaches the furthest extent of the throat.

2.      Pouring water into the nose, so that all is washed up to and including the cartilage of the nose.

3.      Pouring water over the entire body, so that no portion is left out.

When Bathing is Obligatory

1.      Discharge of spermatic fluid with lust.

2.      Nocturnal emission due to a wet dream.

3.      Sexual intercourse between a man and his wife, with or without seminal discharge.

 

For women only:

4.      End of menstruation.

5.      End of postnatal bleeding.

When Bathing is Sunnah

Bathing has been prescribed by the sunnah for:

1.      The Jumu‘ah prayer.

2.      Prayers of ‘Id al-Fiṭr and ‘Id al-Aḍḥaa.

3.      When assuming the Iḥraam (for Ḥajj or ‘Umrah).

4.      The Day of ‘Arafaat (9th Dhu’l-Ḥijjah).

When Bathing is Recommended

Bathing is recommended for:

·         When staying in ‘Arafaat.

·         When staying in Muzdalifah.

·         When visiting the Holy Sanctuary (of the Kaʻbah in the city of Makkah).

·         When visiting the holy shrine of the Prophet Muḥammad e (in the city of Madeenah).

·         On the Night of Liberation (Laylat al-Baraa’ah).

·         On the Night of Power (Laylat al-Qadr), etc.

Miscellaneous Issues

i.                    It is better for one who becomes major ritually impure (junub) during the night in the month of Ramaḍan to take a bath before the rising of dawn in order so that every moment of his fast is spent free from impurity. If, however, he does not do so, there is no loss in the fast.

ii.                  It is prohibited for one who is major ritually impure to

a.      enter the masjid,

b.      circumambulate the Holy Kaʻbah,

c.       touch or even recite the Holy Qur’an.

iii.                There is no harm for one who is major ritually impure to pronounce blessings upon the Prophet Muḥammad e or to make supplications, but it is better for him to do so after performing ablution or rinsing the mouth.

iv.                The major ritually impure person is permitted to respond to the Adhaan.

v.                  The major ritually impure person ought not to delay in bathing because the angels of mercy do not enter the house he is in.

vi.                If water is not available for bathing, one performs tayammum.

Tayammum (Dry Ablution) تيمُّم   

 

فَلَمْ تَجِدُوْا مَآءً فَتَيَمَّمُوْا صَعِيْدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوْا بِوُجُوْهِكُمْ وَ أَيْدِيْكُمْ مِّنْهُ .  

fa-lam tajidoo maa’an fa-tayammamoo ṣaʻeedan ṭayyiban, fa’msaḥoo bi-wujoohi-kum wa aydee-kum minhu.

“If you do not find water, then perform tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and your hands.” (5:6)[7]

If water is unavailable, or if one fears his illness may be aggravated if he performs ablution or bathes, then the command is for him to perform tayammum (dry ablution as a substitute for ablution and ritual bathing).

The method of performing tayammum as a substitute to both the ablution and the ritual bathing is the same, and the difference lies only in the intention; one is to define the tayammum of ablution or of the bathing respectively.

Method of Performing Tayammum

1.      Define the intention, that he is performing tayammum in order to relieve himself of ritual impurity and so that he can offer prayer.

2.      Spread apart the fingers of both hands and strike them once on clean earth, or something of the genus of the earth, and wipe them over the whole face without leaving out any portion.

3.      Strike again, like the first, and wipe over both hands from the tips of the nails up to (and including) the elbows without leaving out any portion.

Obligations in Tayammum

There are three obligations in tayammum:

1.      Define the intention.

2.      Strike both hands on the earth and wipe them over the whole face.

3.      Strike both hands on earth and wipe them over both hands up to (and including) the elbows.

Sunnahs in Tayammum

The acts prescribed by sunnah in tayammum are:

1.      Pronounce ‘bismi’Llaahi’r-raḥmaani’r-raḥeem’.

2.      Strike both hands on the earth.

3.      Keep the fingers wide open.

4.      Shake off excessive dust from the hands by striking the metacarpals of either thumb against one another.

5.      Comb through:

a.       the fingers and

b.      the beard.

Miscellaneous Issues

        i.            It is obligatory to remove or to move aside rings, bracelets, bangles, etc., and to wipe underneath them.

      ii.            It is of the genus of the earth if it does not burn to ash, melt or soften; tayammum is permitted with it even though there may be no dust on it.

    iii.            It is permitted to perform tayammum with any clean dusty cloth that emits visible dust when struck by the hand.

    iv.            Anything that nullifies ablution or obligates ritual bathing also nullifies tayammum. The availability of water also nullifies tayammum.


Chapter 3 – PRAYER  صلوٰة  

Adhaan (Call to Prayer) أذان   

 

وَ إِذَا نَادَيْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلٰوةِ .

wa idhaa naadaytum ila’ṣ-ṣalaati…

“and when you call to prayer…” (5:58)[8]

Adhaan (Call to Prayer) is an emphasised sunnah (sunnah mu’akkadah) for the five daily prayers, including the Jumuʻah prayer. It should be called on its due time; if it is called before its time then it must be repeated. Adhaan is not made for prayers other than those that are individual obligations (farḍ ‘ala’l-ʻayn).

It is detested (makrooh taḥreemi) for women to call the Adhaan. The Adhaan of someone not in minor ritual impurity, requiring ablution, is acceptable but disliked, and hence, it is more excellent for it to be called whilst in ritual purity.

One ought to stand in a lofty place, facing the qiblah, with index fingers inserted into the ears and call the Adhaan with the words:

اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ ، اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ ، اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ ، اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ .

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَّاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَّاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ .

أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَّسُوْلُ اللهُ ، أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَّسُوْلُ اللهُ. 

حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلٰوةِ ، حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلٰوةِ .

حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلَاحِ ،حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلَاحِ .

اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ ، اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ .

لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ .

1.      Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar,

Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar.

Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest (twice).

2.      ash’hadu al’laa ilaaha illa’Llaah,

ash’hadu al’laa ilaaha illa’Llaah.

I testify there is no god but Allah (twice).

3.      ash’hadu anna muḥammada’r-rasoolu’Llaah,

ash’hadu anna muḥammada’r-rasoolu’Llaah.

I testify Muḥammad (e) is the messenger of Allah (twice).

4.      ḥayya ʻala’ṣ-ṣalaah,

ḥayya ʻala’ṣ-ṣalaah.

Hurry to prayer (twice).

5.      ḥayya ‘ala’l-falaaḥ,

ḥayya ‘ala’l-falaaḥ.

Hurry to success (twice).

6.      Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar.

Allah is the greatest (four times).

7.      laa ilaaha illa’Llaah.

There is no god but Allah (once).

 

One should turn to the right when saying ‘ḥayya ʻala’ṣ-ṣalaah’, and to the left when saying ‘ḥayya ‘ala’l-falaaḥ’.

In the Adhaan for Fajr prayer, after saying ‘ḥayya ‘ala’l-falaaḥ’, it is sunnah to add the words:

أَلصَّلٰوةُ خَيْرٌ مِّنَ النَّوْمِ .

8.      aṣ-ṣalaatu khayru’m-mina’n-nawm,

aṣ-ṣalaatu khayru’m-mina’n-nawm.

Prayer is better than sleep (twice).

           

Iqaamah (Call to the Beginning of the Congregation)  إقامة   

 

After Adhaan, the words pronounced in the Iqaamah at the time for the congregation are similar to those of the Adhaan, with only a slight difference:

1.      After ‘ḥayya ‘ala’l-falaaḥ’, say:

قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلٰوةُ .

qad qaamati’ṣ-ṣalaah,

qad qaamati’ṣ-ṣalaah.

Prayer is established (twice).

2.      Say the Iqaamah in a relatively lower voice than that of the Adhaan.

3.      Say it rapidly.

4.      Do not insert fingers into the ears.

Responding to Adhaan and Iqaamah (Ijaabah)

It is recommended to respond to the Adhaan and the Iqaamah.

1.      The one who hears the Adhaan or the Iqaamah responds to them by repeating the same words.

2.      On hearing ‘ash’hadu anna muḥammada’r-rasoolu’Llaah’, he kisses his thumbs and places them on his eyes.

a.       At the first instance, he says:

صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْكَ يَا رَسُوْلَ اللهِ .

ṣall-Allaahu ‘alayka yaa rasool-Allaah.

“May Allah bless you, O Messenger of Allah”

b.      At the second instance, he says:

قُرَّةُ عَيْنِىْ بِكَ يَا رَسُوْلَ اللهِ . أَللّٰهُمَّ مَتِّعْنِىْ بِالسَّمْعِ وَالْبَصَرِ .

qurratu ‘aynee bi-ka yaa rasool-Allaah. Allaahumma mattiʻnee bi’s-samʻi wa’l-baṣar.

“With you is the coolness of my eyes, O Messenger of Allah. O Allah, maintain my hearing and my sight.”

Whoever does this will not lose his eyesight, and the Messenger of Allah e will intercede for him.

3.      In response to ‘ḥayya ʻala’ṣ-ṣalaah’ and ‘ḥayya ‘ala’l-falaaḥ’, pronounced twice, he says:

لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِالله.

laa ḥawla wa-laa  quwwata illaa bi’Llaah.

“There is no power (to save us from sin) and no might (to enable us to do good) except from Allah.”

4.      In response to ‘aṣ-ṣalaatu khayru’m-mina’n-nawm’ pronounced twice in the Adhaan of the Fajr prayer, he says:

صَدَقْتَ وَ بَرَرْتَ .

ṣadaqta wa bararta.

“You have spoken the truth and done good.”

5.      In response to ‘qad qaamati’ṣ-ṣalaah’ pronounced twice in the Iqaamah, he says:

أَقَامَهَا اللهُ وَ أَدَامَهَا .

aqaama-ha’Llaahu wa adaama-haa.

“May Allah establish it and keep it forever.”

After that, the Supplication of Adhaan is said by everybody.

Supplication after Adhaan

After the proclamation of the Adhaan, the person who calls the Adhaan (mu’adhdhin) and the listeners ask for blessings and peace on the Prophet Muḥammad e, and they make the following supplication:

أَللّٰهُمَّ رَبَّ هٰذِهِ الدَّعْوَةِ التَّآمَّةِ وَالصَّلٰوةِ الْقَآئِمَةِ أٰتِ سَيِّدَنَا مُحَمَّدًاۨ الْوَسِيْلَةَ وَالْفَضِيْلَةَ وَالدَّرَجَةَ الرَّفِيْعَةَ وَابْعَثْهُ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُوْدًاۨ الَّذِىْ وَعَدْتَّهٗ وَارْزُقْنَا شَفَاعَتَهٗ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ، إِنَّكَ لَا تُخْلِفُ الْمِيْعادَ . بِرَحْمَتِكَ يَا أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِيْنَ .

Allaahumma rabba haadhihi’d-daʻwati’taammati wa’ṣ-ṣalaati’l-qaa’imati aati sayyidanaa muḥammadani’l-waseelata wa’l-faḍeelata wa’d-darajata’r-rafeeʻata wa’bʻath-hu maqaama’m-mahmoodani’lladhee waʻatthahu wa’rzuqnaa shafaaʻatahu yawma’l-qiyaamati innaka laa tukhlifu’l-meeʻaad, biraḥmati-ka yaa arḥama’r-raaḥimeen.

“O Allah,  Lord of this perfect call and of this established prayer, grant our leader Sayyidunaa Muḥammad e the Intercession and excellence and the highest rank, and honour him with the Maqaam Maḥmood (the praiseworthy station) which You have promised him, and bestow upon us his intercession on the Day of Judgement.  Surely You do not go back on Your promise. (Accept this invocation) through Your divine mercy, O the Most Compassionate of them all.”

Miscellaneous Issues

It is commendable for the mu’adhdhin to be one who is pious and righteous, and who calls the Adhaan for virtue. The Adhaan of the hermaphrodite or eunuch, the sinner, the drunkard, the insane and the child who cannot distinguish (between right and wrong), is detested and needs to be repeated.

Responding to the Adhaan (or Iqaamah) is not due on:

1.      women experiencing menstruation or postnatal bleeding,

2.      those listening to the sermon[9],

3.      those engaged in answering a call of nature or

4.      in sexual intercourse.

During Adhaan, one ought to suspend all acts, even that of reciting the Holy Qur’an, for a short while. If one is walking, he stops and listens to the Adhaan, and responds to it. If one hears multiple Adhaans at around the same time, then due upon him is only to respond to the first, but it is more excellent for him to respond to them all.

 

Prayer    صلوٰة   

 

Of the obligations imposed upon Muslims by Allah I, the greatest is that of prayer. Those who study the Holy Qur’an and Hadith know well how important and crucial prayer is, as well as how terrible and terrifying are the consequences for missing it.

The following commands of Allah I refer to the importance and significance of prayer.

Divine Commands

1.       

هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِيْنَ . الَّذِيْنَ يُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوةَ وَ مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُوْنَ .

huda’l-li’l-muttaqeena ’lladheena yu’minoona bi’l-ghaybi wa yuqeemoona’ṣ-ṣalaata wa mi’m-maa razaqnaahum yunfiqoon(a).

“(The Qur’an) is guidance, to those wary (of Allah), who believe in the unseen and establish the prayer, and spend out of what we have provided for them.”(2:2-3)[10]

 

2.       

حَافِظُوْا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلٰوةِ الْوُسْطٰى وَ قُوْمُوْا لِلّٰهِ قَانِتِيْنَ .

ḥaafiẓoo ʻala’ṣ-ṣalawaati wa’ṣ-ṣalaati’l-wusṭaa, wa qoomoo li’Llaahi qaaniteen.

“Safeguard all prayers, especially the central prayer (of ʻAṣr); and stand before Allah with devoutness.” (2:238)[11]

3.       

رِجَالٌ  ۙ لَّا تُلْهِيْهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَّ لَا بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللّٰهِ وَ إِقَامِ الصَّلَوةِ وَ إِيْتَآءِ الزَّكٰوةِ ۙ يَخَافُوْنَ يَوْمًا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيْهِ الْقُلُوْبُ وَالْأَبْصَارُ.

rijaalu’l-laa tulhee-him tijaaratun’wa laa bayʻun ʻan dhikri’Llaahi wa iqaami’ṣ-ṣalaati wa eetaa’i’z-zakaati, yakhaafoona yawman tataqallabu feehi’l-quloobu wa’l-abṣaar(u).

“(Virtuous) men (are those) whom neither trade and nor merchandise can divert from the remembrance of Allah, (nor) from establishing prayer, (and nor) from giving in charity; they (only) fear the Day when hearts and eyes will turn (inside out).” (24:37)[12]

4.       

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُصَلِّيْنَ ۙ الَّذِيْنَ هُمْ عَنْ صَلٰوتِهِمْ سَاهُوْنَ .

fa-waylu’l-li’l-muṣalleena ’lladheena hum ʻan ṣalaatihim saahoon.

“So woe to those (hypocritical) worshippers, who are heedless (of the importance) of their prayers.[13]”  (107:4-5)[14]

5.       

فَخَلَفَ مِنْۢ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوْا الصَّلٰوةَ وَاتَّبَعُوْا الشَّهَوَاتِ   ۖفَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا .

fa-khalafa mi’m-baʻdi-him khalfun aḍaaʻu’ṣ-ṣalaata wa’t-tabaʻu’sh-shahawaati, fa-sawfa yalqawna gḥayya(n).

“Then, there came after them a posterity who wasted the prayers and followed (worldly) desires. So they will encounter Ghayy. (19:59)[15]

Ghayy is a pit in the lowest portion of Hell in which collects the pus, etc. of the inmates of Hell.

6.       

فِىْ جَنَّاتٍ ؕ ۛ يَّتَسَائَلُوْنَ ۙ عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِيْنَ ۙ مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِىْ سَقَرَ . قَالُوْا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّيْنَ ۙ وَ لَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِيْنَ .

fee jannaatin yatasaa’aloona ʻani’l-mujrimeena maa salaka-kum fee saqar. qaaloo lam naku mina’l-muṣalleena wa-lam naku nuṭʻimu’l-miskeen(a).

“In gardens (of Paradise) the (dwellers of Paradise) will ask the guilty, “What has caused you to enter Hell?” They will say, “We were not of those who used to offer their prayers, nor did we used to feed the needy.” (74:40-44)[16]

7.      Supplication of Sayyidunaa Ibrahim u

رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِىْ مُقِيْمَ الصَّلٰوةِ وَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِىْ ۖ رَبَّنَا وَ تَقَبَّلْ دُعَآءِ .

rabbi’jʻalnee muqeema’ṣ-ṣalaati wa min dhurriyyatee, rabba-naa wa taqabbal duʻaa’.

“O My Lord! make me one who establishes prayer, and also from my offspring, Our Lord! and accept my supplication.” (14:40)[17]

8.      The First Revelation to Sayyidunaa Musa u

إِنَّنِىْۤ أَنَا اللهُ لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّاۤ أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِىْ  ۙ وَ أَقِمِ الصَّلٰوةَ لِذِكْرِىْ .

inna-nee ana’Llaahu, laa ilaaha illaa ana faʻbud-nee, wa aqimi’ṣ-ṣalaata li-dhikree.

“Verily, I am Allah! There is no god but I. So, worship Me, and establish prayer to remember Me.” (20:14)

9.      Words of Sayyidunaa ‘Isa u - whilst still in the lap of his mother

قَالَ إِنِّىْ عَبْدُاللهِ ؕ أٰتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَ جَعَلَنِىْ نَبِيًّا  ۙ وَّ جَعَلَنِىْ مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُ  وَ أَوْصَانِىْ بِالصَّلٰوةِ وَالزَّكٰوةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا .

qaala in-nee ‘abdu’Llaahi , aataa-niya’l-kitaaba wa jaʻala-nee nabiyyan’wa jaʻala-nee mubaarakan ayna maa kuntu, wa awṣaa-nee bi’ṣ-ṣalaati wa’z-zakaati maa dumtu ḥayya(n).

“(‘Isa u) said, “Verily! I am a slave of Allah; He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet; He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and has enjoined on me prayer and zakah, as long as I live." (19:30-31)[18]

10.  Advice of Sayyidunaa Luqman u - to his son

يٰبُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلٰوةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ.

yaa bunayya aqimi’ṣ-ṣalaata  wa’mur bi’l-maʻroofi wa’nha ʻani’l-munkar(i).

“O my son! (continue to) establish prayer, enjoin (people) to what is good, and forbid (people) from what is wrong.” (31:17)[19]

11.  Glory of the Faithful

وَالْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ . يَأْمُرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوةَ وَ يُؤْتُوْنَ الزَّكٰوةَ وَ يُطِيْعُوْنَ اللهَ وَ رَسُوْلَهٗ . أُلٰٓئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللهُ  ۗ. إِنَّ اللهَ عَزِيْزٌ حَكِيْمٌ .

wa’l-mu’minoona wa’l-mu’minaatu baʻḍu-hum awliyaa’u baʻḍ. ya’muroona bi’l-maʻroofi wa yanhawna ʻani’l-munkari wa yuqeemoona’ṣ-ṣalaata wa yu’toona’z-zakaata wa yuṭeeʻoona’Llaaha wa rasoola-h(u). ulaa’ika sayarḥamu-humu’Llaah. inna’Llaaha ʻazeezun ḥakeem(un).

“The believing men and women are supporters of one another; they enjoin (people) to what is good, and forbid (people) from what is wrong; they establish prayer and pay the zakah, and obey Allah and His messenger. It is they upon whom Allah will have His mercy. Surely, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” (9:71)[20]

12.  Five Times Daily Prayer

وَ أَقِمِ الصَّلٰوةَ طَرَفَيِ النَّهَارِ وَ زُلَفًا مِّنَ اللَّيْلِ .

wa aqimi’ṣ-ṣalaata ṭarafayi’n-nahaari wa zulafa’m-mina’l-layl(i).

“And establish prayer at the two ends of the day (Fajr and Maghrib) and in some hours of the night (that are close to daylight).” (11:114)[21]

13.   

حٰفِظُوْا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلٰوةِ الْوُسْطٰى .

ḥaafiẓoo ʻala’ṣ-ṣalawaati wa’ṣ-ṣalaati’l-wusṭaa.

“Safeguard all prayers, especially the central prayer (of ʻAṣr).” (2:238)[22]

  

14.   

أَقِمِ الصَّلٰوةَ لِدُلُوْكِ الشَّمْسِ .

   aqimi’ṣ-ṣalaata li-dulooki’sh-shams(i).

“Establish prayer at the sun’s decline (from its meridian) (i.e. Ẓuhr).” (17:78)[23]

Evidence for:

o   Fajr, Maghrib and ʻIshaa’ prayers is found in verse 12,

o   ʻAṣr prayer in verse 13, and

o   Ẓuhr prayer in verse 14.

In short, the prayer, to be performed five times daily, is a personal obligation on every sane and adult Muslim, male and female; its denial is disbelief (kufr), and to leave it without a legal excuse is a major sin. Prayer is absolutely a physical form of worship that cannot be substituted, meaning that one cannot offer it on behalf of another and nor can it be ransomed for financial alternatives. It is a pillar of Islam, and so to establish it is to establish the religion of Islam itself. One is not absolved of offering it whether he is travelling or settled, such that if he is unable to offer it standing owing to illness, he may do so in a seated position, and if sitting is not possible then whilst lying down. To offer prayer in congregation is twenty-seven (27) times more excellent than to offer it alone.


Method of Performing Prayer

1.      Before offering prayer, it is essential that;

a.       the body,

b.      clothes and

c.       place of prayer of the worshipper

 are pure, and

2.      The time for the prayer has begun.

3.      One stands facing the qiblah, in a state of ablution, making a space of approximately five toes between both feet.

4.      He must form the intention in the mind regarding the prayer he is about to offer, whereas it is preferable for him to pronounce that intention verbally. For example, he says, “I intend to perform four obligatory (or sunnah) units of today’s Ẓuhr prayer for the sake of Allah I, facing the qiblah.”

a.       If he is following an imam, he adds, “following behind this imam.”

5.      He raises both his hands to his ears with their palms facing the qiblah and their fingers relaxed in a normal manner - neither joined together and nor spread apart.

[Females raise their hands up to their shoulders.]

6.      Whilst pronouncing اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ (Allaahu Akbar)’[24], he lowers his hands and binds them under his navel; the right palm is placed over the left wrist-joint with its middle three fingers spread along the back of the wrist. The thumb and the little finger are placed along the sides of the wrist (forming a semi-circle).

[Females place their hands upon the chest with the right hand on top of the left hand.]

7.      One fixes his gaze on the spot where he will prostrate.

8.      He then recites the Thanaa’[25].

Unit 1

1.     Qiyaam – Standing Posture    قيام (of the 1st Unit):

a.     Thanaaثناء 

سُبْحَانَكَ اللّٰهُمَّ وَ بِحَمْدِكَ وَ تَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَ تَعَالٰى جَدُّكَ وَ لَاۤ إِلٰهَ غَيْرُكَ .

subḥaana-ka’Llaahumma wa bi-ḥamdi-ka, wa tabaaraka’smu-ka wa-taʻaalaa jaddu-ka wa laa ilaaha ghayru-k(a).

“Glorified are You, O Allah; praise is to You, blessed is Your name, exalted is Your majesty, and there is no god besides You.”

 

If someone begins prayer in congregation following an imam, he recites the Thanaa’ and then adopts silence and listens to the recitation of the imam. If he is performing prayer alone, he recites the Taʻawwudh, the Tasmiyah, the Soorat al-Faatiḥah and the additional soorah after the Thanaa’.

 

b.     Taʻawwudh  تعوُّذ – Seeking Refuge with Allah I

أَعُوْذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطٰنِ الرَّجِيْمِ .

   aʻoodhu bi’Llaahi mina’sh-shayṭaani’r-rajeem.

“I seek refuge with Allah from Satan the Accursed.”

 

c.      Tasmiyah[26] تَسمِيَة - Pronouncing the Name of Allah I

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ .

bismi’Llaahi’r-raḥmaani’r-raḥeem.

“I begin with the name of Allah, the Divinely-Compassionate, the Ever-Merciful.”

 

d.     Soorat al-Faatiḥah سُورة الفاتحة 

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ  ۙ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ ۙ مٰلِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّيْنِ . إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَ إِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِيْنُ . إِهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيْمَ ۙ صِرَاطَ الَّذِيْنَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۙ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوْبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَا الضَّآلِّيْنَ .( آمِيْن ) .

al-ḥamdu li’Llaahi rabbi’l-ʻaalameen. a’r-raḥmaani’r-raḥeem. maaliki yawmi’d-deen. iyyaa-ka naʻbudu wa iyyaa-ka nastaʻeen. ihdina’ṣ-ṣiraaṭa’l-mustaqeem. ṣiraaṭa’lladheena anʻamta ʻalayhim ghayri’l-maghḍoobi ʻalayhim wa la’ḍ-ḍaalleen. (aameen.) (1:1-7)[27]

“All praise is for Allah, Lord of all the worlds; the Divinely-Compassionate, the Ever-Merciful, Lord of the Day of Judgement. You alone we worship, (O Allah,) and You alone we seek for aid. Guide us on the Straight Path, the path of those whom You have favoured and not of those upon whom is Your wrath, and nor of those who are astray.” (“Accept it, O Allah.”)

 

e.      Soorat al-Ikhlaaṣ سُورة الإِخلاص  (Additional Chapter)[28]

قُلْ هُوَ اللهُ أَحَدٌ .ۚ اللهُ الصَّمَدُ .ۚ لَمْ يَلِدْ  ۙ وَ لَمْ يُوْلَدْ .ۚ وَ لَمْ يَكُن لَّهٗ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ .

qul huwa’Llaahu aḥad. Allaahu’ṣ-ṣamad. Lam yalid wa lam yoolad. Wa lam yaku’l-la-hoo kufuwan aḥad. (112:1-4)[29]

“Say (O Beloved Messenger e): Allah is One (and Only). Allah is above and beyond all dependence. He did not beget and nor was He begotten. And there is none comparable to him.”

2.     Rukooʻ رُكوع - Bowing

Whilst pronouncing ‘Allaahu Akbar’, one bows down into the bowing position (rukooʻ) and grabs onto his knees firmly. He bows in a manner that the head and the back are level with each other. [Females need only bow enough to touch the uppermost tips of their knees with the tips of their fingers, and their head is not required to be level with the back.] One must then pronounce the tasbeeḥ of bowing a minimum of three times.

a.     Tasbeeḥ تَسبيح (Glorification of Allah) when Bowing

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيْمِ .

               subḥaana rabbiya’l-ʻaẓeem.

“Glorified is my Lord, the Great.”

If prayer is being held in congregation, only the imam says the Tasmeeʻ when rising up from the bowing position.

b.     Tasmeeʻ تَسمِيع - Listening

سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهٗ .

               samiʻa’Llaahu li-man ḥamida-h.

“Allah has listened to the one who praised Him.”

3.     Qawmah قَومة - Brief Standing (after Bowing)

Drop the arms loosely down the sides and stand erect. The follower of the imam in congregation pronounces the Taḥmeed (Praise).

a.     Taḥmeed تَحمِيد - Praise

 رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ .

   rabba-naa laka’l-ḥamd.

“Our Lord, all praise is to You.”

If praying alone, he pronounces both the Tasmeeʻ and the Taḥmeed.

4.    1st Sajdah  سَجدة  - Prostration

Whilst saying ‘Allaahu Akbar’, he then goes into prostration; he first places both knees on the ground, followed by the hands and then the nose and forehead – he places his face in between both hands. It is important for males to separate the arms from the sides, the abdomen from the anterior thighs and the posterior thighs from the shins during prostration, whereas the elbows should be raised from the ground and the toes should face the qiblah with their undersides firmly on the ground. [Females crouch low in prostration with their arms clinging to the sides, the abdomen touching the anterior thighs, the posterior thighs touching the shins, the elbows placed on the ground and the upper sides of the toes touching the ground, not facing the qiblah.]

a.     Tasbeeḥ تَسبيح (Glorification of Allah) when Prostrating

One then recites the Tasbeeḥ of prostration a minimum of three times:

سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلٰى .

               subḥaana rabbiya’l-aʻlaa.

“Glorified is my Lord, the Most High.”

b.     Jalsah جَلسة – Brief Sitting (between Two Prostrations)

Whilst pronouncing ‘Allaahu Akbar’, one rises from the prostration in such a manner that first the forehead is lifted, followed by the nose and then the hands. One lays the left foot on the ground and sits on it and stands the right foot erect with its toes facing the qiblah. [Females sit upon the buttock whilst projecting the legs from the side; they place one thigh over the other and one shin over the other. This method also applies to the Qaʻdah (See 5 in Unit 2).] With his fingers facing the qiblah, one places the hands on the thighs, close to the knees. [Females keep their fingers closely knit together.]

Whilst pronouncing ‘Allaahu Akbar’, one performs the second prostration.

c.      2nd Sajdah سَجدة  - Prostration

One performs the second prostration in the same manner as the first (as in 4 and 4a).

He then says ‘Allaahu Akbar’ and stands.

Unit 2

5.     Qiyaam قيام  – Standing Posture (of the 2nd Unit):

One recites the Tasmiyah, the Soorat al-Faatiḥah and the additional soorah (chapter) and performs the bowing and the prostration in a similar manner (as in Unit 1, 1c, 1d and 1e), but he does not recite the Tasmiyah, the Soorat al-Faatiḥah and the additional soorah when following an imam. Instead, he remains silent.

6.     Qaʻdah قَعدة  –Sitting Posture:

After completing both prostrations of the second unit, he sits in the same manner as he did between the two prostrations (Jalsah), and he recites the Tashahhud.

a.     Tashahhud and Testimony  تَشَهُّد:

أَلتَّحِيَّاتُ لِلّٰهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ ، أَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَالنَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهٗ ، أَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلٰى عِبَادِاللهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ. أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَّاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهٗ وَرَسُوْلُهٗ .

at-taḥiyyaatu li’Llaahi wa’ṣ-ṣalawaatu wa’ṭ-ṭayyibaatu as-salaamu ʻalayka ayyuha’n-nabiyyu wa-raḥmatu’Llaahi wa-barakaatu-hu, as-salaamu ʻalaynaa wa ʻalaa ʻibaadi’Llaahi’ṣ-ṣaaliḥeen. ash’hadu al’laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu wa ash’hadu anna muḥammadan ʻabdu-hoo wa rasooluh.

“All verbal forms of worship are for Allah alone, so are physical forms of worship as well as financial forms of worship. O Prophet, may peace be on you, and the mercy of Allah as well as His blessings. May peace be on us and on the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and I bear witness that Muḥammad e is His servant and messenger.”

 

When he reaches the word laa in the Tashahhud (as underlined in the transliterated text above), he forms a circle using the middle finger and the thumb of the right hand, he clenches together the little finger and the ring finger into the palm of the hand and he raises the index finger. After reciting the word illa (also underlined above), he drops the index finger and straightens all the fingers.

If he is performing a prayer of two units, after Tashahhud he asks for blessings upon the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e, makes the supplication and performs the salutation. If he is performing a prayer of four units, after Tashahhud he pronounces “Allaahu Akbar” and stands up. If it is an obligatory prayer, he only recites the Tasmiyah and the Soorat al-Faatiḥah (with no additional soorah) in the remainder of the units and then continues with the bowing and prostration as prescribed. If it is a sunnah or optional (nafl) prayer, he will recite the Tasmiyah, the Soorat al-Faatiḥah as well as the additional soorah. When following an imam, the follower does not recite the Tasmiyah and nor the Soorat al-Faatiḥah or the additional soorah, but remains silent.

After completing the four units, he sits. He recites the Tashahhud, asks for blessings upon the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e and makes the supplication, and then he performs the salutation.

b.     Blessings Upon the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e  الصَّلوٰةُ علىَ النَّبيّ (دُرود شَريف)

أَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلٰى مُحَمَّدٍ وَّ عَلٰۤى أٰلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلٰۤى إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَ عَلٰۤى أٰلِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَّجِيْدٌ . أَللّٰهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلٰى مُحَمَّدٍ وَّ عَلٰۤى أٰلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلٰۤى إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَ عَلٰۤى أٰلِ إِبْرَاهِيْمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيْدٌ مَّجِيْدٌ .

Allaahumma ṣalli ʻalaa muḥammadi’n-wa ʻalaa aali muḥammadin ka-maa ṣallayta ʻalaa ibraaheema wa ʻalaa aali ibraaheema inna-ka ḥameedu’m-majeed. Allaahumma baarik ʻalaa muḥammadi’n-wa ʻalaa aali muḥammadin ka-maa baarakta ʻalaa ibraaheema wa ʻalaa aali ibraaheema inna-ka ḥameedu’m-majeed.

“O Allah, send blessings on Muḥammad e and on the family of Muḥammad e, just as You sent blessings on Ibrahim  and on the family of Ibrahim , surely, You alone are Praiseworthy, Magnificent. O Allah, bless Muḥammad e and the family of Muḥammad e, just as You blessed Ibrahim u and the family of Ibrahim u, surely You alone are Praiseworthy, Magnificent.”

c.      Supplication دُعاء

رَبِّ اجْعَلْنِىْ مُقِيْمَ الصَّلٰوةِ وَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِىْ ۖ رَبَّنَا وَ تَقَبَّلْ دُعَآءِ . رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِىْ وَ لِوَالِدَيَّ وَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ يَوْمَ يَقُوْمُ الْحِسَابُ .

rabbi’jʻal-nee muqeema’ṣ-ṣalaati wa min dhurriyyatee. rabba-naa wa taqabbal duʻaa. rabba-na’ghfir lee wa-liwaalidayya wa li’l-mu’mineena yawma yaqoomu’l-ḥisaab.

“My Lord, make me regular in establishing prayers and my descendants also. Our Lord, accept my supplication. Our Lord, forgive me, my parents and all the believers on the Day when the Reckoning will be established.”

Alternatively, one may recite this supplication:

أَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّىْ ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِىْ ظُلْمًا كَثِيْرًا وَّ لَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوْبَ إِلَّاۤ  أَنْتَ فَاغْفِرْ لِىْ مَغْفِرَةً مِّنْ عِنْدِكَ وَارْحَمْنِىْۤ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْغَفُوْرُ الرَّحِيْمُ .

Allaahumma in’nee ẓalamtu nafsee ẓulman katheera’n-wa laa yaghfiru’dh-dhunooba illaa anta fa’ghfir lee maghfirata’m-min ʻindi-ka wa’r-ḥam-nee, inna-ka  anta’l-ghafooru’r-raḥeem.

“O Allah, I have seriously wronged myself and none forgives sins but You, so forgive me with the special forgiveness that comes from You and have mercy on me, surely You are the Forgiving, the Ever-Merciful.”

d.     Salaam سَلام  - Salutation

Finally, in order to conclude the prayer, one performs the salutation by turning once to the right and then to the left, to each side saying:

أَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللهِ .

   as-salaamu ʻalaykum wa-raḥmatu’Llaah.

“May peace be with you, as well as the mercy of Allah.”

When performing the salutation to the right side, he intends by it the angels to the right side as well as all the worshippers on that side. When performing salutation to the left side, he intends by it the angels to the left side as well as all the worshippers on that side. He intends to greet the imam in the salutation performed according to the side on which the imam is. Likewise, the imam also intends the angels and the worshippers in the salutations made on either side. If offering prayer alone, one only makes intention of the angels.

 

Differences for Females

This above-mentioned method of performing prayer is specific for males only, and females differ from the performance of the male in certain areas:

1.      When saying the Takbeer Taḥreemah, the female raises her hands up to the shoulders without exposing them from the sleeves.

2.      During the Qiyaam (Standing Posture) (1), she places her hands on the chest, with one hand placed on the back of the other.

3.      When bowing (2), she bows very slightly, bends the knees a little, places the hands on the knees without grabbing them and she does not spread her fingers wide.

4.      She performs the bowing (2) and the prostration (4a and 4c) in a constricted manner; when prostrating, she adjoins the abdomen with the anterior thighs and the posterior thighs with the shins whilst placing the arms on the ground.

5.      Whilst sitting during the Jalsah (4b) and the Qaʻdah (5), she sits on the buttock with the legs projecting from one side, keeping her fingers close together.

Everything else is the same as men in terms of performance.

 

Supplications & Remembrances after Prayer

In the Holy Qur’an, Allah I says:

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلٰوةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ .

   fa-idhaa qaḍaytumu’ṣ-ṣalaata fa’dhkuru’Llaah(a).

“And when you finish (the prescribed) prayer, remember Allah.” (4:103)[30]

 

First of all, one should seek forgiveness and pardon from Allah I:

أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ رَبِّىْ مِنْ كُلِّ ذَنْۢبٍ وَّ أَتُوْبُ إِلَيْهِ .

astaghfiru’Llaaha rabbee min kulli dhambin’wa atoobu ilay-hi.

“I seek the forgiveness of Allah - my Lord, from every sin (I have committed) and I turn to Him (in repentance).”

He may then supplicate however he wants.

  

First Supplication

أَللّٰهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلَامُ وَ مِنْكَ السَّلَامُ وَ إِلَيْكَ يَرْجِعُ السَّلَامُ ، حَيِّنَا رَبَّنَا بِالسّلَامِ وَ أَدْخِلْنَا دَارَ السّلَامِ ، تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَ تَعَالَيْتَ يَا ذَالْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ .

Allaahumma anta’s-salaamu wa min-ka’s-salaamu wa ilay-ka yarjiʻu’s-salaam. ḥayyi-naa rabba-naa bi’s-salaami wa adkhil-naa daara’s-salaam. tabaarak-ta rabba-naa wa taʻaalayta yaa dha’l-jalaali wa’l-ikraam.

“O Allah, You are Peace, peace is from You and peace returns to You. Keep us alive in peace and admit us into the abode of peace. Our Lord, You are most blessed and most high, O Magnificent and most Honourable One.”

Second Supplication

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَاحَسَنَةً وَّفِى الْآ خِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَّ قِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ.

rabba-naa aati-naa fi’d-dunyaa ḥasanatan’wa fi’l-aakhirati ḥasanatan’wa-qinaa ʻadhaaaba’n-naar.

“Our Lord, bestow upon us goodness in this world, goodness in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the Fire (of Hell).”

After the obligatory prayers that are followed by sunnah prayers, one ought to make only short supplications, like those mentioned above, otherwise by extending the supplications, the reward for the sunnah prayers may decrease. He can then make further invocations and remembrances of Allah I after he has completed the sunnah prayers. If there are no sunnah prayers after the obligatory prayers, there is no harm in him making invocations and remembrances of Allah I immediately after them.

First Remembrance

After each prayer, one pronounces:

سُبْحَانَ اللهِ .

   subḥaana’Llaah.

“Glorified is Allah.” 33 times.

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ .

   al-ḥamdu li’Llaah.

“All praise is for Allah.” 33 times.

اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ .

   Allaahu Akbar.

“Allah is the Greatest.” 34 times.

He then pronounces the following, once:

لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهٗ  لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهٗ ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَ هُوَ عَلٰى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ .

laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu waḥda-hoo laa shareeka la-hoo, lahu’l-mulku wa lahu’l-ḥamdu, wa huwa ʻalaa kulli shay’in qadeer.

“There is no god but Allah, the One and Only. He has no associate. His is the kingdom and for Him is all praise. He is all-powerful over everything.”

By reciting this, all sins are forgiven.

Second Remembrance

لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهٗ  لَا شَرِيْكَ لَهٗ  وَ هُوَ عَلٰى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ . أَللّٰهُمَّ لَا مَانِعَ لِمَاۤ أَعْطَيْتَ وَ لَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ وَ لَا رَآدَّ لِمَا قَضَيْتَ وَ لَا يَنْفَعُ  ذَالْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَدُّ .

laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu waḥda-hoo laa shareeka la-hoo,  wa huwa ʻalaa kulli shay’in qadeer. Allaahumma laa maaniʻa li-maa aʻṭayta, wa laa muʻṭiya li-maa manaʻta, wa laa raadda li-maa qaḍayta, wa laa yanfaʻu dha’l-jaddi min-ka’l-jadd.

“There is no god but Allah, the One and Only. He is all-powerful over everything. O Allah, there is none to prevent what You bestow, there is none to give what You hold back, there is none to turn back what you decide and no wealth will benefit anyone who owns wealth but through You.”

Third Remembrance; Aayat al-Kursee آيةُ الكُرسِي – Verse of the Throne

اَللهُ لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚالْحَيُّ الْقَيُّوْمُ ۚ  لَا تَأْخُذُهٗ سِنَةٌ وَّ لَا نَوْمٌ . لَهٗ مَا فِى السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ مَا فِى الْأَرْضِ . مَنْ ذَاالَّذِىْ يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهٗۤ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهٖ . يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيْهِمْ وَ مَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۚ وَ لَا يُحِيْطُوْنَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهٖۤ إِلَّا بِمَا شَآءَ  ۚوَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالأَرْضَۚ وَ لَا يَؤُوْدُهٗ حِفْظُهُمَا  ۚوَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيْمُ .

Allaahu laa ilaaha illaa huwa’l-ḥayyu’l-qayyoom. laa ta’khudhu-hoo sinatun’wa laa nawm. la-hoo maa fi’s-samawaati wa maa fi’l-arḍ. man dha’lladhee yashfaʻu ʻinda-hoo illaa bi-idhni-hi. yaʻlamu maa bayna aydee-him wa maa khalfa-hum, wa laa yuḥeeṭoona bi-shay’i’m-min ʻilmi-hee illaa bi-maa shaa’a. wasiʻa kursiyyu-hu’s-samawaati wa’l-arḍa, wa laa ya’oodu-hoo ḥifẓu-humaa, wa huwa’l-ʻaliyyu’l-ʻaẓeem.

“Allah; there is no god but He, the Living, the Self-Subsisting. Slumber does not take Him and nor does sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is he who can intercede with Him except by His leave. He knows all that happens before them (in this world) and what will happen after them (in this world and the next). They do not compass any speck of His knowledge except what He wills. His throne extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in protecting them; He is the Most High, the Great. (2:255)[31]

It is important to invoke blessings upon the Beloved Prophet Muḥammad e at the beginning and the end of invocations and supplications, otherwise they remain suspended and are not presented to Allah I.

Timings of Prayers

In the Holy Qur’an, Allah I says:

إِنَّ الصَّلٰوةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ كِتٰبًا مَّوْقُوْتًا .

inna’ṣ-ṣalaata kaanat ʻala’l-mu’mimeena kitaaba’m-mawqoota(n).

“Verily, prayers are enjoined on believers at fixed times.” (4:103)[32]

 

Prayers should be performed in their respective times; any prayer performed before its time is not accepted, whereas if performed after its time, it is not performed duly but delayed.

Fajr فجر

The time for Fajr prayer extends from the true dawn[33] till the first ray of sunlight. True dawn is that light which spreads horizontally across the sky from the point of sunrise and by it brightness occurs.

Ẓuhr ظُهر

The time for Ẓuhr prayer begins when the sun declines from the centre of the sky (at midday), and it lasts until the shade of objects becomes double the size of the object, minus the original shade at midday. The original shade is that which exists when the sun is at its peak at midday.

ʻAṣr عَصر

The time for ʻAṣr prayer begins when the time for Ẓuhr prayer ends, and it lasts until sunset. It is best to perform ʻAṣr prayer before the sunlight turns yellow, for prayer is detested when sunlight is yellow, though it is valid.

Maghrib مغرِب

The time for Maghrib prayer extends from sunset until the setting of the twilight. Twilight is the whiteness that remains spread on the western horizon, from north to south, after the setting of the redness.

ʻIshaa’ عِشاء

The time for ʻIshaa’ prayer begins at the setting of the twilight and it lasts until the dawning of Fajr – it is disliked to pray it after midnight. Experience has established that Ishaa’ prayer time begins an hour and a half after Maghrib prayer during long nights, whereas it begins after an hour and a quarter during the shorter nights.[34]

Times Detested for Prayer

It is detested to pray during the following times:

1.      When the sun is rising.

2.      When the sun is setting.

3.      When the sun is at its zenith.

4.      No optional prayers should be offered:

a.       after the true dawn until sunrise, other than the two sunnah prayers of Fajr, or

b.      after ʻAṣr prayer until sunset.

5.      When the imam stands to deliver the Jumuʻah sermon up until the obligatory Jumuʻah prayer, no other prayer should be offered.

Numbers of Units in Prayers

Name

of

Prayer

Non-Emphasised Sunnah

Units

before Obligatory Units

Emphasised

Units

before Obligatory Units

Obligatory

Units

Emphasised

Units

After

Obligatory

Units

Optional Units

Total Number of

Units

Fajr

--

2

2

--

--

4

Ẓuhr

--

4

4

2

2

12

ʻAṣr

4

--

4

--

--

8

Maghrib

--

--

3

2

2

7

ʻIshaa’

4

--

4

2

(3 incumbent units of Witr)

2

(2 after Witr)

17

Commands in Prayer

The Method of Performing Prayer includes conditions, obligations, incumbent acts, sunnahs and preferences. The worshipper ought to learn them separately.

They include conditions, obligations, incumbent acts, sunnahs, invalidating acts, undesirable acts and legal excuses to discontinue prayer.

 

Pre-Conditions for Prayer شرائط

There are six conditions for prayer:

1.      Purity: The body and clothing of the worshipper must be pure.

2.      The place of worship must be pure.

3.      Covering the private parts: Parts of the body that are obligatory to be covered must be concealed;

a.       for men, it is from the navel to the knees,

b.      for women, it is the entire body except the hands, the feet and the face.

4.      Facing the qiblah; the face and the chest must be towards the qiblah.

5.      Time; the prayer must be performed on time.

6.      Intention; firm resolution in the heart is intention, and it is preferable to say it verbally.

Note: It is imperative for these conditions to exist prior to beginning the prayer, otherwise the prayer is invalid.

Obligations فرائض

There are seven obligations in prayer:

1.      The Takbeer Taḥreemah; to pronounce ‘Allaahu Akbar’.

2.      Standing: to pray by standing upright. It is obligatory to stand when performing obligatory and incumbent prayers, the sunnah units of Fajr prayer and the prayers of the two ‘Eids; they will be invalid if one prays them whilst seated without a legal excuse. However, it is not obligatory to offer optional prayers standing.

3.      Recitation: it is obligatory to recite at least one verse in:

a.       the first two units of obligatory prayers, and

b.      every unit of Witr and optional prayers.

It is not permitted for the follower to recite anything in any prayer.

4.      Bowing.

5.      Prostration.

6.      The Final Sitting: to complete the prayer and sit the final sitting.

7.      Khurooj bi-Ṣunʻi-hee: an objective end to the prayer.

Omitting any of these obligations invalidates the prayer, even though one performs the prostrations of forgetfulness.

Incumbent Acts واجبات

The following acts in prayer are incumbent:

1.      To recite the Soorat al-Faatiḥah once in the first two units of obligatory prayers, and in every unit of every other type of prayer.

2.      After that, to recite in the first two units of obligatory prayers, and in every unit of Witr, sunnah and optional prayers, one of the following:

a.       a short soorah,

b.      three short verses or

c.       one long verse equal to three short verses.

 

3.      Qawmah: to stand upright immediately after performing the bow.

4.      Jalsah: To sit between the two prostrations.

5.      The First Sitting: to sit after two units in a prayer of three or four units.

6.      Tashahhud: to recite the Tashahhud in both sittings (i.e. the first sitting in a three or four units prayer, and the final sitting of all prayers).

7.      Not to recite anything beyond the Tashahhud in the first sitting.

8.      The follower to remain silent if the imam recites audibly or silently.

9.      The follower to follow and imitate the imam in all incumbent affairs other than the recitation.

10.  To maintain the sequence.

11.  To execute all aspects in a calm and comfortable manner.

12.  The imam to recite audibly in the obligatory units of Fajr, Maghrib, ʻIshaa’, Jumuʻah, the two ‘Eids, the Taraaweeḥ prayers and the Witr prayer in Ramaḍan.

13.  The imam to recite silently in the prayers of Ẓuhr and ʻAṣr.

14.  To add six extra Takbeers in the prayers of the two ‘Eids.

If any incumbent act is missed out due to forgetfulness, the prayer can be rectified by performing the prostrations of forgetfulness. It is incumbent to repeat the prayer if he fails to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness, or if he omits them deliberately.

Sunnahs سُنّة

The following are the sunnahs in prayer:

Takbeer Taḥreemah

When pronouncing the Takbeer Taḥreemah:

1.      To raise both hands to the ears.

2.      To face the palms of both hands towards the qiblah.

3.      The imam to pronounce all the Takbeers of prayer audibly.

Standing Position

4.      To place the hands below the navel.

5.      To recite silently the Thanaa’, the Taʻawwudh and the Tasmiyah.

6.      To pronounce ‘Aameen’ silently at the end of Soorat al-Faatiḥah.

7.      To pronounce Takbeer when moving from one aspect of the prayer to the other.

8.      To recite the Tasmiyah silently at the beginning of each unit.

9.      To recite only Soorat al-Faatiḥah in the third and fourth units of obligatory units.

10.  To pronounce the Tasbeeḥs thrice when bowing and prostrating.

Bowing

11.  To maintain the straightness of the legs when bowing.

12.  Grabbing onto the knees in such a manner that the fingers remain spread apart.

13.  The head and the back to be level with each other.

 

When rising from the bowing position

14.  The imam to pronounce:

سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهٗ .

   samiʻa’Llaahu li-man ḥamida-h.

“Allah has listened to the one who praised Him.”

15.  And the follower says:

رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ .

   rabba-naa laka’l-ḥamd.

“Our Lord, all praise is to You.”

(If praying alone, he pronounces both the Tasmeeʻ and the Taḥmeed.)

When Prostrating

16.  To first place both the knees on the ground, followed by

17.  the hands,

18.  the nose and then

19.  the forehead.

20.  To do the opposite when getting up from prostration.

21.  To keep the arms away from the sides, and the abdomen away from the anterior thighs.

When one is in congregation, it is not possible to keep arms away from the sides.

22.  To keep the elbows raised from the ground.

23.  To keep the fingers together.

24.  To point the fingers towards the qiblah.

25.  Between the prostrations, to stand the right foot erect, and to lay the left foot down and to sit on it.

26.  To place the hands on the thighs.

27.  In prostration, to keep the undersides of the toes on the ground.

28.  To point the toes towards the qiblah.

Tashahhud

29.  In Tashahhud, when pronouncing ‘ash’hadu al’laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu’, to indicate with the right index finger, in such manner that he raises it at laa, and drops it at illa, and straightens all digits to face the qiblah.

30.  After Tashahhud, to invoke blessings upon the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e.

31.  To add a supplication prescribed by the sunnah.

32.  To perform salutation twice; one to the right and then to the left.

33.  The imam to pronounce the salutations audibly – he pronounces the second in a relatively lower voice than the first.

If any of these sunnahs is left out, be it out of forgetfulness or deliberately, prayer is not invalidated, and nor is it incumbent to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness, though the one who omits deliberately is sinful.

Recommendations مُستحبّات

The following are the acts recommended in prayers:

1.      To leave a space of approximately four toes between both feet.

2.      To pronounce the Tasbeeḥs more than thrice when bowing and prostrating; either five or seven times.

3.      To look at:

a.       when standing, at the spot where one will prostrate,

b.      when bowing, on the backs of the feet,

c.       when prostrating, at the tip of the nose,

d.      when sitting, into the lap and

e.       when performing the salutation, on the shoulders.

4.      To keep the mouth closed when yawning; if it opens, one should cover it with back of his hand.

Invalidators مُفسِدات

1.      To speak to someone, whether forgetfully or intentionally.

2.      To greet someone or to respond to someone’s greeting, whether forgetfully or deliberately.

3.      To respond to someone who sneezes.[35]

4.      To say, “Sit down,” or “Ahem!” etc., when the imam forgets.

5.      To say “jalla jalaalu-Hu (May His magnificence be extolled)” when hearing the name of Allah I.

6.      To invoke blessings on the Prophet Muḥammad e as a response to hearing his name - there is no harm if it is not stated as a reply.

7.      To remind someone other than his own imam (of an error or negligence).

8.      To say, ‘Ah’, ‘Uff!’, ‘Ouch!’  etc., out of pain or distress - if the ill person says it uncontrollably, it is excused.

9.      To intentionally end the prayer by performing the salutation before its completion - if someone does so forgetfully, there is no harm, and the worshipper must complete his prayer and perform the prostrations of forgetfulness at the end.

10.  To recite the Qur’an by looking at it during prayer.

11.  To respond by saying something when hearing good or bad news.

12.  To make a serious mistake when reciting the Qur’an or anything else during prayer.

13.  To eat or drink (something during prayer).

If some food was stuck between the teeth and he swallows it:

a.       if it is the size of a gram (or larger), the prayer is invalidated,

b.      if it is smaller than a gram, the prayer is not invalidated but despised.

14.  To turn the chest away from the qiblah without a valid excuse.

15.  An infant taking the breast of a woman and milk begins to flow from it.

16.  A man kissing his wife or touching her body with desire when she is in prayer.

One ought to take caution as prayer is rendered void by any of the nullifiers mentioned above.

Undesirable Acts مكروهات

It is undesirable to do any of the following when praying:

1.      To gather one’s clothing, e.g., to raise it up from the front or back when going into prostration, though it may only be to protect it from dust.

2.      To drape cloth, e.g., to place it over the head or the shoulders in such a manner that both ends hang down loosely.

3.      To fold up the sleeves more than half-way up the forearms.

4.      To offer prayer with intense urge to pass stools, pass water or pass wind.

5.      To crack fingers.

6.      To interlace the fingers by locking the fingers of one hand into those of the other hand.

7.      To turn the face here and there.

8.      To raise the head and face the sky.

9.      To pray in front of someone’s face.

10.  To pray wearing a garment that bears the picture of an animate object.

11.  To pray with a picture (of an animate object) in the front of, the left, right or above the worshipper.

12.  To recite the Holy Qur’an backwards.

13.  The follower’s bowing or prostrating, etc., before his imam.

14.  To pray with a grave in front when nothing comes in between. It is not detested if:

a.       something is placed in between as a sutrah, and nor

b.      if the grave is to the left or right.

The existence of any of these undesirables renders the prayer defective, and so therefore, one should abstain from committing any of them.

Legal Excuses to Discontinue Prayer عُذر شرعيّ

The following reasons make it legally permitted to discontinue and invalidate prayer:

1.      To kill a snake, etc., when there exists a risk of harm.

2.      To catch a runaway (domesticated) animal.

3.      When one fears loss, e.g., milk will boil over, meat, vegetables, bread, etc. (i.e. food), would get burnt.

4.      A thief takes something and makes a run.

5.      One’s mode of transport (i.e. train, plane, coach, etc.) is about to set off and he fears he will miss it.

6.      A female stranger has touched him.

7.      One has the intense urge to pass stools or water.

8.      Someone in distress calls for help.

9.      Someone is:

a.       drowning

b.      burning in fire, or

c.       a blind passer-by is about to fall into a well, etc.

One is permitted to abandon prayer in all of these situations. In circumstances 8 and 9, it is incumbent (waajib) for one to leave prayer provided he has the capacity to help.

Sujood as-Sahwسُجود السهو  – Prostrations for Forgetfulness

In prayer, any of the following acts obligate prostrations for forgetfulness (sujood as-sahw):

1.      when an incumbent act is missed out due to forgetfulness,

2.      if any obligatory act is repeated, e.g., someone performs the bow twice, etc.,

3.      he exceeds beyond the incumbent or obligatory act, e.g., he invokes blessings on the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e after the Tashahhud in the first sitting.

The follower is required to perform the prostrations of forgetfulness (with the imam) if the imam commits a mistake (or forgets in his prayer), but if the follower himself errs (or forgets) then prostrations of forgetfulness are not due on him (and nor on his imam) because he is one who follows behind the imam.

If the imam is about to commit an error, the follower ought to remind him by saying, “subḥaan Allaah.” If the imam returns from his act of mistake then that is fine, otherwise the follower should adhere to the imam’s performance of prayer and then perform the prostrations of forgetfulness with the imam at the end.

Method of Performing the Prostrations of Forgetfulness

One recites the Tashahhud in the final sitting and he invokes blessings on the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e. He then performs the salutation to the right, followed by two prostrations. He then recites the Tashahhud, invokes blessings on the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e, makes the supplication and finally performs the salutations to both sides (in order to end the prayer).

Witr Prayer صلوٰة ُالوِتر

The Witr prayer is incumbent; if it is missed, it must be made up by way of delayed performance (qaḍaa’). Its timing is after the ʻIshaa’ prayer, and it lasts until the true dawn. It is best to perform it in the latter portion of the night together with the Tahajjud prayer, but he who apprehends that he may not be able to wake up for it may perform it together with the ‘Ishaa’ prayer prior to retiring to bed.

Witr prayer consists of three units:

1.      After two units, one sits and recites the Tashahhud and then stands.

2.      In the third unit, he pronounces the Tasmiyah, recites the Soorat al-Faatiḥah and the additional soorah, raises both his hands to his ears and binds them (under his navel) whilst pronouncing the Takbeer. It is incumbent for him to recite the Qunoot (قُنوت):

أَللّٰهُمَّ إِنَّا نَسْتَعِيْنُكَ وَ نَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَ نُؤْمِنُ بِكَ وَ نَتَوَكَّلُ عَلَيْكَ وَ نُثْنِىْ عَلَيْكَ الْخَيْرَ وَ نَشْكُرُكَ وَ لَا نَكْفُرُكَ وَ نَخْلَعُ وَ نَتْرُكُ مَنْ يَّفْجُرُكَ . أَللّٰهُمَّ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَ لَكَ نُصَلِّىْ وَ نَسْجُدُ وَ إِلَيْكَ نَسْعَى وَ نَحْفِدُ وَ نَرْجُوْا رَحْمَتَكَ وَ نَخْشٰى عَذَابَكَ إِنَّ عَذَابَكَ بِالْكُفَّارِ مُلْحِقٌ .

Allaahumma innaa nastaʻeenu-ka wa nastaghfiru-ka wa nu’minu bi-ka wa natawakkalu ʻalay-ka wa nuthnee ʻalay-ka’l-khayra wa nashkuru-ka wa laa nakfuru-ka wa nakhlaʻu wa natruku man-yafjuru-k(a). Allaahumma iyyaa-ka naʻbudu wa la-ka nuṣallee wa nasjudu wa ilay-ka nasʻaa wa naḥfidu wa narjoo raḥmata-ka wa nakhshaa ʻadhaaba-ka, inna ʻadhaaba-ka bi’l-kuffaari mulhiq.

“O Allah, we surely ask You for help, we turn to You for forgiveness, we believe in You, we place our trust in You, we praise You in the best manner, we are thankful to You, we are not ungrateful to You, and we cast off and forsake whoever disobeys You. O Allah, it is You only we worship, we pray and prostrate to You, it is You we rush towards and serve, we are hopeful for Your mercy and we fear Your punishment, for surely, Your punishment is destined for the disbelievers.”

If one cannot recite the Qunoot, then may recite the following:

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِى الدُّنْيَاحَسَنَةً وَّ فِى الْآ خِرَةِحَسَنَةً وَّ قِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ.

rabba-naa aati-naa fi’d-dunyaa ḥasanatan’wa fi’l-aakhirati ḥasanatan’wa-qi-naa ʻadhaaba’n-naar.

“Our Lord, bestow upon us goodness in this world, goodness in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the Fire (of Hell).”

If one forgets to recite the Qunoot and he bows, he should not return back, (but complete the rest of the prayer) and perform the prostrations of forgetfulness (at the end).

 

Congregation جماعة and Imaamah إمامة - Leading Prayer

وَارْكَعُوْا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِيْنَ .

   wa’rkaʻoo maʻa’r-raakiʻeen.

“And bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship).” (2:43)[36]

It is incumbent to perform (prescribed) prayer in congregation. Whoever intentionally misses it even once is sinful, whereas the one who misses it regularly is a grievous sinner who deserves to be punished.

Congregation is a condition for the Jumuʻah prayer and the two ‘Eid  prayers, whereas it is a communal sunnah (sunnah ‘ala’l-ʻkifaayah) for the Taraaweeḥ تراويح prayer – if a few of the inhabitants of a community establish it, it lapses as a duty from the others, but if no person establishes it then all will be deemed to have wronged.

Congregational prayer holds twenty-seven (27) times more reward than prayer performed individually.

Who Can Lead Prayer

The imam (i.e. someone who leads the people in prayer) should be:

1.      of correct beliefs from amongst the Ahlu’s-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaaʻah (People of the Prophetic Way and the Majority Community)

2.      righteous,

3.      law abiding (with regards to Islamic and local law),

4.      one who recites the Holy Qur’an correctly, and

5.      one who knows more regarding the issues of purity and prayer.

Who Cannot Lead Prayer

It is detested (makrooh taḥreemi) to offer prayer in the leadership of one who is:

1.      of wrongful beliefs,

2.      openly disobedient, such as one who:

a.       drinks wine (or other alcoholic beverages),

b.      commits unlawful sexual intercourse,

c.       deals in usury,

d.      backbites,

e.       shaves the beard or maintains it shorter than the legally prescribed length.

It is incumbent to repeat the prayer if it was performed under the leadership of suchlike people.

It is detested for a woman to lead prayer, and it is undesirable (makrooh tanzeehi) for the illegitimate person (born out of extramarital connections), the leper and the paralysed person to lead prayer when someone more suitable than them is available. It is undeniably permitted for a blind person to lead prayer, provided he pays heed to cleanliness.

Upon Whom Congregation is not Incumbent

The following are not required to attend congregational prayer:

1.      Women,

2.      The sick,

3.      The cripple,

4.      The lame,

5.      The handicapped,

6.      The decrepit old man, and

7.      The blind.

Legal Excuses to Miss Congregation

Congregational prayer may be omitted, even by people who are well, in the event of:

1.      intense cold,

2.      pitch-black darkness,

3.      intense rain,

4.      extreme muddiness along the route to the masjid,

5.      strong winds,

6.      apprehension:

a.       of theft,

b.      of an enemy, or

c.       of a tyrant,

7.      intense urge to pass stools or pass water,

8.      presence of food when one is hungry, and

9.      when tending the sick.

Jumuʻah Prayer    صلوٰة الجمُعَة

يٰۤـأَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ أٰمَنُوْا إِذَا نُوْدِيَ لِلصَّلٰوةِ مِن يَّوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلٰى ذِكْرِ اللهِ وَ ذَرُوْاالْبَيْعَ ۚ ذٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُوْنَ .

yaa ayyuha’lladheena aamanoo idhaa noodiya li’ṣ-ṣalaati min’yawmi’l-jumuʻati fa’sʻaw ilaa dhikri’Llaahi wa dharu’l-bayʻ. dhaalikum khayru’l-lakum in kuntum taʻlamoon.

“O you who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday, hasten you all to the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and everything): that is more excellent for you if only you knew!” (62:9)[37]

Jumuʻah prayer is an individual obligation, and its requirement is more emphasised than that of the Ẓuhr prayer. Anyone who denies this is a disbeliever (kaafir). The Jumuʻah prayer is performed in lieu of the Ẓuhr prayer, and therefore its timing is that of the Ẓuhr prayer.

Conditions for Jumuʻah Prayer

Some conditions are required for Jumuʻah prayer to be valid, and the absence of even one condition will render the prayer void. Where any condition is missing, Ẓuhr prayer is held instead.

1.      A city, or a village that holds a central position in the region though it may not be itself a city.

2.      The time be that of Ẓuhr.

3.      A sermon to be held prior to the prayer.

4.      Congregation, for the Jumuʻah prayer cannot be held without congregation.

5.      General permission for people to partake in it.

Upon Whom Jumuʻah Prayer is Obligatory

Jumuʻah prayer is obligatory on every:

1.      Muslim,

2.      male,

3.      who is free,

4.      adult,

5.      sane,

6.      healthy and

7.      resident.

Upon Whom Jumuʻah Prayer is not Obliged

Jumuʻah prayer is not obligatory on: the woman, the slave, the prisoner, the minor, the insane, the sick, the disabled, one who is tending the sick, the traveller, one who fears someone, and one who apprehends obvious danger.

If the traveller, the sick and the woman attend the Jumuʻah prayer, their prayer will be acceptable and the obligation for them to perform Ẓuhr prayer will lapse.

It is sunnah to bathe on Fridays, and it is commendable to wear fine clothes, wear perfume, brush the teeth and seat oneself in the front row.

Miscellaneous Issues

Whatever is prohibited in prayer is also prohibited during the sermon, such as eating, drinking, greeting, talking, even commanding others to do good, etc.

The imam may command others to do good, and it is obligatory on all the attendees to remain silent and listen to the sermon. If the imam says something by way of supplication, it is prohibited for the listeners to raise their hands or even to respond by saying ‘Aameen.’

It is, however, permitted to make a noble supplication in the mind between the two sermons.

Prayer of the Two ‘Eids صلوٰة ُالعِيدَين

وَ لِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللهَ .

   wa li-tukmilu’l-ʻiddata wa li-tukabbiru’Llaaha.

 “That you complete the prescribed number (of days in fasting), and that you express the magnificence of Allah. (2:185)[38]

 

فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ.

   fa-ṣalli li-rabbi-ka wa’n-ḥar.

“So (continue to) turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only).” (108:2)[39]

The prayer of the two ‘Eids is incumbent on those on whom the Jumuʻah prayer is obligated, and the same conditions are required to be fulfilled for it as are those of the Jumuʻah prayer. The only difference lies in the sermon where it is a condition for the Jumuʻah prayer, but sunnah for the ‘Eid  prayer.

The timing for both ‘Eid  prayers begins when the sun has risen to the height of one spear (i.e. early morning – about a quarter of an hour after sunrise[40]) until the sun is at its peak at midday. It is desirable to delay the performance of the ‘Eid  al-Fiṭr prayer and to hasten the ‘Eid  al-Aḍḥaa prayer.

There is no Adhaan or Iqaamah for these two prayers.

 

Method of Performing ‘Eid  Prayer

The method of performing the ‘Eid  prayers is the same for both (the ‘Eid al-Fiṭr and the ‘Eid al-Aḍaa).

Unit 1

1.      Form the intention: ‘two units of the incumbent ‘Eid  al-Fiṭr / ‘Eid  al-Aḍḥaa prayer, with six additional Takbeers.’

2.      Pronounce the Takbeer Taḥreemah and bind the hands (as in regular prayers).

3.      Recite Thanaa’.

4.      Pronounce three Takbeers – the imam pronounces these audibly whereas the follower pronounces them silently. (Raise hands to the ears for all three Takbeers.) After the first two Takbeers, drop the hands loosely down the sides, and bind them after the third Takbeer.

5.      The imam recites the Soorat al-Faatiḥah, and an additional soorah audibly.

6.      Bowing and prostrations are performed.

Unit 2

7.      In the second unit, after recitation of the Soorat al-Faatiḥah and the additional soorah, but prior to bowing, the imam audibly and the follower silently pronounce three Takbeers, whilst raising the hands to the ears each time and then dropping them loosely down the sides.

8.      The imam and the follower pronounce a fourth Takbeer without raising their hands to the ears, and they bow.

9.      Complete the prayer as normal.

 

Recommendations of ‘Eid

The following acts are desirable to be done on ‘Eid:

1.      (males) to have a haircut,

2.      trim the nails,

3.      brush the teeth,

4.      take a bath,

5.      wear fine clothes,

6.      wear perfume,

7.      walk to the place of prayer,

8.      pronounce the Takbeer[41] en route to the place of prayer,

9.      use an alternative route when returning home,

10.  pay the Ṣadaqat al-Fiṭr prior to the ‘Eid  al-Fiṭr prayer,

11.  eat something sweet – if dates, then in an odd number (i.e. three, five or seven, etc.),

12.  meet one another – shake hands, embrace, congratulate, greet, etc.

Wording of Takbeer تَكبير

The words of Takbeer to be pronounced on ‘Eid are:

اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ  وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ وَ لِلّٰهِ الْحَمْدُ .

Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu, wa’Llaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, wa li’Llaahi’l-ḥamd.

“Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, there is no god but Allah, and Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, and for Allah is all praise.”

Funeral Prayer صلوٰة ُالجَنازة

وَ لَا تُصَلِّ عَلٰۤى أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ مَّاتَ أَبَدًا.

   wa laa tuṣalli ʻalaa aḥadi’minhum maata abada(n).

“And never (O Muḥammad ) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (disbelievers and hypocrites) who dies, (but pray for the Muslims). (9:84)[42]

Funeral prayer is a communal obligation (farḍ ‘ala’l-kifaayah). A communal obligation is that which if performed by a few, all are absolved of its requirement, otherwise all are held sinful if they were informed of it but did not attend.

Congregation is not conditional for it; the performance by even one person fulfils the obligation.

Rudimentary Elements (Rukn) of Funeral Prayer

It has two rudimentary elements:

1.      Pronounce Takbeer ( اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ ) four times.

2.      Perform the prayer standing.

Sunnahs of Funeral Prayer

It has three sunnahs:

1.      Reciting praise (Ḥamd and Thanaa’) to Allah I.

2.      Invoking blessings on the Holy prophet Muḥammad e.

3.      Supplicating for the deceased – the deceased is one who was born alive but died later. There is no funeral prayer for the stillborn.

Presence of the dead body – there is no funeral prayer for the absentee.

The presence of many dead bodies calls for only one funeral prayer; one intention is made for all. It is more excellent to perform the funeral prayer for them individually.

Method of Performing Funeral Prayer

1.      Form the intention.

2.      The imam and the follower raise their hands to the ears and bind them below the navel, whilst pronouncing the Takbeer Taḥreemah.

3.      Recite the Thanaa. After reciting ‘wa taʻaalaa jaddu-Ka’, add ‘wa jalla thanaa’u-Ka (وَ جَلَّ ثَنَاءُكَ  )’, then complete ‘wa laa ilaaha ghayru-Ka’.

4.      Pronounce the second Takbeer, without raising the hands to the ears, and invoke blessings on the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e - the same words are pronounced as those stated in the prayer.

5.      Pronounce the third Takbeer, (without raising the hands to the ears,) and supplicate (for the deceased).

The imam pronounces the Takbeers audibly, and the follower pronounces them silently.

Supplication for a Deceased Adult

أَللّٰهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِحَيِّنَا وَ مَيِّتِنَا وَ شَاهِدِنَا وَ غَآئِبِنَا وَ صَغِيْرِنَا وَ كَبِيْرِنَا وَ ذَكَرِنَا وَ أُنْثٰنَا . اَللّٰهُمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَهٗ مِنَّا فَأَحْيِهٖ عَلَى الْإِسْلَامِ وَ مَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَهٗ مِنَّا فَتَوَفَّهٗ عَلَى الْإِيْمَانِ.

Allaahumma’ghfir li-ḥayyi-naa wa mayyiti-naa wa shaahidi-naa wa ghaa’ibi-naa wa ṣagheeri-naa wa kabeeri-naa wa dhakari-naa wa unthaa-naa. Allaahumma man aḥyayta-hoo min-naa fa-aḥyi-hee ʻala’l-islaami wa man tawaffayta-hoo min-naa fatawaffa-hoo ʻala’l-eemaan.

“O Allah, forgive our living and our dead, our present and our absent, our young and our old and our males and our females. O Allah, whomever You keep alive, keep him alive according to Islam, and whomever You cause to die, cause him to die in a (state of true) faith.” 

Supplication for a Deceased Young Male

اَللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ لَنَا فَرَطًا وَّ اجْعَلْهُ لَنَا أَجْرًا وَّ ذُخْرًا وَّ اجْعَلْهُ لَنَا شَافِعًا وَّ مُشَفَّعًا .

Allaahumma’jʻal-hu la-naa faraṭan’wa’jʻal-hu la-naa ajran’wa dhukhran’wa’jʻal-hu la-naa shaafiʻan’wa-mushaffaʻa(n).

“O Allah, make him for us a forerunner, make him for us a (means of) reward and a store (of merit), and make him for us an advocate and one whose intercession is accepted.”

Supplication for a Deceased Young Female

اَللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْهَا لَنَا فَرَطًا وَّ اجْعَلْهَا لَنَا أَجْرًا وَّ ذُخْرًا وَّ اجْعَلْهَا لَنَا شَافِعَةً وَّ مُشَفَّعَةً .

Allaahumma’jʻal-haa la-naa faraṭan’wa’jʻal-haa la-naa ajran’wa dhukhran’wa’jʻal-haa la-naa shaafiʻatan’wa-mushaffaʻah).

“O Allah, make her for us a forerunner, make her for us a (means of) reward and a store (of merit), and make her for us an advocate and one whose intercession is accepted.”

6.      After the supplication, pronounce the fourth Takbeer, and immediately

7.      Perform the salutation to both sides.

8.      Break up the rows and pray for the deceased.

Note: To carry the bier is a form of worship and a means of great merit.

It is a common misunderstanding among the people who believe that a husband should not carry the bier of his deceased wife, and nor should he place her into the grave or even see her face. This is incorrect. The prohibition applies only to the bathing of her dead body and of touching her body unscreened.

A woman may bathe the body of her husband.

Traveller’s Prayer صلوٰة ُ المُسافِر

A legal traveller is he who has left his residence with the intention of travelling a minimum of fifty-seven (57) miles.

It is incumbent on him to shorten (qaṣr) only the obligatory prayers i.e. perform the four-unit obligatory prayers as two units – the two units are a complete prayer for him.

If he performs all four units, either intentionally or unintentionally, the obligation will be fulfilled, provided he sits in Qaʻdah after two units - the final two units will be counted as an optional prayer (nafl). The one who performs all four units intentionally will be sinful and he will be obliged to repent.

1.      If the traveller prays under the leadership of a resident imam, he performs all four units (in the relevant obligatory prayers).

2.      If the resident follower prays under the leadership of an imam who is a traveller, then the follower completes (his four units with) two units after the imam performs the salutations after two units. The follower does not recite Soorat al-Faatiḥah in those two additional units, but remains silent to the extent of the recitation of the Soorat al-Faatiḥah. He performs the remainder of the prayer as normal.

The traveller is legally a traveller until he reaches his own residence. If he remains in any city or resides:

1.      with the intention of settling there for less than fifteen days, he shortens the prayers, but

2.      if he intends to remain there for fifteen days or more, he performs the prayers complete.

Shortening of the prayer only applies to the obligatory prayers of four units; there is no shortening for sunnah or Witr prayers, and thus, they are performed complete.

Prayer at Ishraaq صلوٰة ُ الْإِشراق – Early Morning

There is much merit for the Ishraaq (Early Morning) prayer; someone who offers it receives the rewards of the entire Ḥajj and ʻUmrah.

It consists of only two units.

After performing the two obligatory units of Fajr prayer in congregation, one remains in the masjid engaged in the remembrance of Allah I. When the sun has clearly risen, he offers the Ishraaq prayer.

Prayer at Ḍuḥaa  صلوٰة ُ الضُّحٰى (Chaasht) – Late Morning / Forenoon

This prayer holds an abundance of reward. The regular performer has all his sins forgiven, even if they equal the foam of the sea. For him there will be a palace made of gold in Paradise.

It consists of a minimum of two units and a maximum of twelve units, whereas to offer twelve is more excellent.

Its timing begins from when the sun has risen high on the horizon and it extends until it is at its peak at midday.

Tasbeeḥ Prayer  صلوٰة ُ التسبيح

The merits of and reward for offering the Tasbeeḥ prayer are countless; it consists of four units.

One may offer it at any time outside of the times detested for prayer[43], though it is best to offer it prior to the Ẓuhr prayer.

Its Method of Performance

The Tasbeeḥ prayer is offered in the following manner:

Unit 1

1.      Pronouce Takbeer Taḥreemah.

2.      Recite Thanaa’.

3.      Recite fifteen (15) times the following ‘sacred words’:

سُبْحَانَ اللّٰهِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَ لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ .

subḥaana’Llaahi wa’l-ḥamdu li’Llaahi wa laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu wa’Llaahu akbar.

“Glory is to Allah, All Praise is to Allah, there is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest.”

4.      Pronounce:

a.       the Taʻawwudh,

b.      the Tasmiyah,

c.       recite the Soorat al-Faatiḥah and

d.      the additional soorah.

5.      Recite the above-mentioned sacred words ten (10) times.

6.      Perform:

a.       the bow and

b.      pronounce the Tasbeeḥ of bowing.

7.      Recite the sacred words ten (10) times.

8.      Rise up from bowing and pronounce:

a.       the Tasmeeʻ and

b.      the Taḥmeed.

9.      Recite the sacred words ten (10) times.

10.  Perform:

a.       the first prostration and

b.      pronounce the Tasbeeḥ of prostration.

11.  Recite the sacred words ten (10) times.

12.  After the first prostration and

a.       whilst in the Jalsah position,

b.      recite the sacred words ten (10) times.

13.  Perform:

a.       the second prostration and

b.      pronounce the Tasbeeḥ of prostration.

14.  Recite the sacred words ten (10) times.

Unit 2

15.  In the second unit,

a.       prior to reciting Soorat al-Faatiḥah,

b.      recite the sacred words fifteen (15) times.

Continue as in the first unit for the remainder of the four units. Thus, the sacred words are pronounced seventy-five (75) times per unit, making a total of three hundred (300) in the four units.

 

Prayer for Fulfilment of Needs صلوٰة ُ الْحاجة

When one is in need, he performs ablution thoroughly, offers two units of prayer, praises and glorifies Allah I and then invokes blessings on the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e, followed by the following supplication:

لَاۤ إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللهُ الْحَلِيْمُ الْكَرِيْمُ . سُبْحَانَ اللهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيْمِ . وَالْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِيْنَ . أَسْئَلُكَ مُوْجِبَاتِ رَحْمَتِكَ وَ عَزَآئِمَ مَغْفِرَتِكَ وَالْغَنِيْمَةَ مِنْ كُلِّ بِرٍّ وَّ السَّلَامَةَ مِنْ كُلِّ إِثْمٍ . لَا تَدَعْ لِىْ ذَنْۢبًا إِلَّا غَفَرْتَهٗ وَ لَا هَمًّا إِلَّا فَرَّجْتَهٗ وَ لَا حَاجَةً  هِيَ  لَكَ  رِضًا  إِلَّا  قَضَيْتَهَا  يَاۤ  أَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِيْنَ .

laa ilaaha illa’Llaahu’l-ḥaleemu’l-kareem. subḥaana’Llaahi rabbi’l-ʻarshi’l-ʻẓeem. wa’l-ḥamdu li’Llaahi rabbi’l-ʻaalameen. as’alu-ka moojibaati raḥmati-ka wa ʻazaa’ima maghfirati-ka wa’l-ghaneemata min kulli birrin’wa’s-salaamata min kulli ithmin. laa tadaʻ lee dhamban illaa ghafarta-hu wa laa hamman illaa farrajta-hu wa laa ḥaajatan hiya la-ka riḍan illaa qaḍay-ta-haa yaa arḥama’r-raaḥimeen.

“There is no god but Allah, the Forbearing, the Kind. Glory be to Allah, Lord of the Majestic Throne. All praise is due to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. I seek from You the means to Your mercy, the avenues to Your forgiveness, the favours of every goodness and protection from every sin. Do not leave with me with any sin but that You forgive it, nor with any sorrow but that You remove it and nor with any need that has Your approval but that You fulfil it, O Most Merciful of all.”

or he may recite the following supplication:

أَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّىْۤ أَسْئَلُكَ وَ أَتَوَجَّهُ إِلَيْكَ بِنَبِيِّكَ مُحَمَّدٍ نَّبِيِّ الرَّحْمَةِ . يَا رَسُوْلَ اللهِ إِنِّى قَدْ تَوَجَّهْتُ بِكَ إِلٰى رَبِّىْ فِىْ حَاجَتِىْ هٰذِهٖ لِتُقْضٰى لِىْ . أَللّٰهُمَّ فَشَفِّعْهُ فِىَّ .

Allaahumma innee as’alu-ka wa atawajjahu ilay-ka bi-nabiyyi-ka muḥammadin nabiyyi’r-raḥmah. yaa rasoola’Llaahi innee qad tawajjahtu bi-ka ilaa rabbee fee ḥaajatee haadhihee li-tuqḍaa lee. Allaahumma fa-shaffiʻ-hu fi(yya).

“O Allah, I seek from You and I turn to You through Your Prophet Muḥammad, the prophet of mercy. O Messenger of Allah, I have turned to my Lord through you for the fulfilment of this need of mine so that it may be fulfilled. O Allah, accept his intercession on my behalf.”

 

Prayer of Istikhaarah صلوٰة ُ الْإِستِخارة - Seeking Good Guidance from Allah I

 

Istikhaarah means: to seek good guidance from Allah I.

Whenever someone decides to undertake an important task, he should seek good guidance for it. It is as though the person seeking the good guidance is pleading with Allah I, ‘O Knower of the Unseen! Give me an indication that the task I am about to perform is good for me or not.’

Method of Performing Istikhaarah Prayer

One first of all offers:

1.      two units of prayer, reciting:

a.       Soorat al-Kaafiroon as the additional soorah in the first unit after Soorat al-Faatiḥah, and then reciting

b.      Soorat al-Ikhlaaṣ as the additional soorah in the second unit.

2.      After completing the prayer with salutation, he makes the following supplication:

اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّىْۤ أَسْتَخِيرُكَ بِعِلْمِكَ وَأَسْتَقْدِرُكَ بِقُدْرَتِكَ وَأَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ الْعَظِيمِ . فَإِنَّكَ تَقْدِرُ وَلَاۤ أَقْدِرُ وَتَعْلَمُ وَلَاۤ أَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ . اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ خَيْرٌ لِّي فِىْ دِيْنِىْ وَمَعَاشِىْ وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِىْ وَ عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَآجِلِهٖ فَاقْدُرْهُ لِىْ وَيَسِّرْهُ لِىْ ثُمَّ بَارِكْ لِىْ فِيهِ  . اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ شَرٌّ لِّىْ فِىْ دِينِىْ وَمَعَاشِىْ وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِىْ وَ عَاجِلِ أَمْرِىْ وَآجِلِهٖ فَاصْرِفْهُ عَنِّىْ وَاصْرِفْنِىْ عَنْهُ وَاقْدُرْ لِـيَ الْخَيْرَ حَيْثُ كَانَ ثُمَّ أَرْضِنِىْ بِهٖ.

Allaahumma innee astakheeru-ka bi-ʻilmi-ka wa astaqdiru-ka bi-qudrati-ka wa as’alu-ka min faḍli-ka’l-aẓeem. fi-inna-ka taqdiru wa laa aqdiru            wa taʻlamu wa laa aʻlamu wa anta ʻallaamu’l-ghuyoob(i). Allaahumma in kunta taʻlamu anna haadha’l-amra khayru’l-lee fee deenee wa maʻaashee wa ʻaaqibati amree wa ʻaajili amree wa aajili-hee fa’qdur-hu lee wa-yassir-hu lee thumma baarik feeh(i). Allaahumma in kunta taʻlamu anna haadha’l-amra sharru’l-lee fee deenee wa maʻaashee wa ʻaaqibati amree wa ʻaajili amree wa aajili-hee faṣrif-hu ʻan-nee wa’ṣrif-nee ʻan-hu wa’qdur liya’l-khayra haythu kaana thumma arḍi-nee be-h(ee).

“O Allah, I ask You for the best according to Your knowledge and I ask You for strength through Your power and I ask You for some of Your immense bounty; You have power but I do not have power, You know and I do not know, You are the Knower of the Unseen. O Allah, if in Your knowledge this matter [ mention the matter in question ] is good for me in my religion and in my livelihood and in the conclusion of my affair and in my affair sooner and later, then decree it for me and make it easy for me and then bless it for me. O Allah, if in Your knowledge this matter is bad for me in my religion and in my livelihood in the conclusion of my affair and in my affair sooner and later, then turn it away from me and turn me from it and decree something better for me wherever it may lie and make me content with it.”

At the beginning of the supplication and at the end of it, one should recite the Soorat al-Faatiḥah and invoke blessings on the Holy Prophet Muḥammad e. It is more excellent to perform the Istikhaarah seven times. Whilst one is still in ablution, he ought to say the above-mentioned supplication and go to bed facing the qiblah.

If he sees:

f.       whiteness or green colour in his dream, he should take it (as a positive sign) that this task is good. If, however, he sees

g.      blackness or red colour, he should deem it (a negative sign) that this task is bad, and that he should abstain from it.

 

Taraaweeḥ Prayer صلوٰة ُ التَّراويح – Night Vigil during Ramaḍan

The prayer specified in between the ʻIshaa’ prayer and the Witr prayer in the nights of the month of Ramaḍan is known as the Taraaweeḥ prayer. Its performance is an emphasised sunnah (sunnat mu’akkadah). It consists of twenty (20) units with ten salutations. It is recommended to rest between every four units and to pronounce the following Tasbeeḥ of Taraaweeḥ:

Tasbeeḥ of Taraaweeḥ تَسبيح التَّراويح:

سُبْحَانَ ذِى الْمُلْكِ وَالْمَلَكُوْتِ . سُبْحَانَ  ذِى الْعِزَّةِ وَالْعَظَمَةِ وَالْهَيْبَةِ وَالْقُدْرَةِ وَالْكِبْرِيَآءِ وَالْجَبَرُوْتِ . سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْحَيِّ الَّذِىْ لَا يَنَامُ وَ لَا يَمُوْتُ . سُبُّوْحٌ قُدُّوْسٌ رَّبُّنَا وَ رَبُّ الْمَلآئِكَةِ وَالرُّوْحِ . اَللّٰهُمَّ أَجِرْنَا مِنَ النَّارِ . يَا مُجِيْرُ ، يَا مُجِيْرُ ، يَا مُجِيْرُ . (الصَّلٰوةُ وَالسَّلَامُ عَلٰى سَيِّدِنَا رَسُوْلِ اللهِ .)

subḥaana dhi’l-mulki wa’l-malakoot(i). subḥaana dhi’l-ʻizzati wa’l-ʻaẓamati wa’l-haybati wa’l-qudrati wa’l-kibriyaa’i wa’l-jabaroot(i). subḥaana’l-maliki’l-ḥayyi’lladhee laa yanaamu wa laa yamoot(u). subbooḥun quddoosu’r-rabbunaa wa rabbu’l-malaa’ikati wa’r-rooḥ(i). Allaahumma ajir-naa mina’n-naar(i), yaa mujeeru, yaa mujeeru, yaa mujeer(u). (aṣ-ṣalaatu wa’s-salaamu ʻalaa sayyidinaa rasooli’Llaah(i).)

“Glorified is He Who has the kingdom and the sovereignty. Glorified is He Who has all honour, greatness, splendour, power, pride and might. Glorified is the King, the Ever-Living, Who does not sleep and will never die. The Absolutely Pure, the Most Holy is our Lord, and (He is) the Lord of the angels and of the soul. O Allah, protect us from the Fire (of Hell), O Protector, O Protector, O Protector. (May blessings and peace be upon our master, the Messenger of Allah.)

Miscellaneous Issues

1.      It is not valid for adult followers to pray behind an imam who is a minor.

2.      It is not permitted to pay someone who has memorised the Holy Qur’an (Ḥaafiẓ) to lead the prayer.

It is, however, valid to give something to him in recognition of his services without forestalling.

3.      Whoever missed the congregation for obligatory prayer must perform the Witr prayer on his own and not in congregation.

Tahajjud Prayer  صلوٰة ُ التَّهَجُّد& Night Prayer صلوٰة ُاللَّيل

After ʻIshaa’ prayer, and after sleeping for a while, the prayer offered is known as the Tahajjud prayer. This prayer holds numerous merits within itself. It consists of two units, as a minimum, whereas its maximum number are twelve units.

After ʻIshaa’ prayer, and before sleeping, the prayer offered is known as the Night Prayer (Ṣalaat al-Layl).

After the prayer of ʻIshaa’, the most excellent prayer is that performed at night.

Prayer for Travel صلوٰة ُ السَّفَر

It is prescribed by the sunnah and full of blessings to offer:

a.       two units of prayer at home when setting off on a journey, and

b.      two units in the masjid when returning home, prior to going home.

Missed Prayers قضاء

Prayer not performed at its appointed time is duly missed (qaḍaa’). To deliberately miss a prayer without a legal valid excuse is a grievous sin. It is obligatory upon someone who has missed the prayer to repent and make up for the prayer he has missed.

It is:

o   obligatory to make up by way of qaḍaa’ for obligatory prayers missed,

o   incumbent for incumbent prayers missed and

o   sunnah for some sunnah prayers missed, such as:

§  the sunnah units of the Fajr prayer, provided the obligatory units of that Fajr prayer have also been missed, and

§  the first four units of the Ẓuhr prayer, so long as Ẓuhr time remains.

Time is not specific to perform prayers that have been missed; one may perform them at any time he wishes, other than the detested times for prayer [44]and he will be absolved of their obligation. However, one should try and avoid delay and discharge the missed prayer as soon as he can.

·         If the sunnah units prescribed to be performed prior to the obligatory units of the Ẓuhr and the Jumuʻah prayer are missed, one may offer them after the obligatory units.

·         If the sunnah units of the Fajr prayer are missed, it is best for him to offer them after sunrise but before Ẓuhr time begins.


 


 

 

In the Holy Qur’an, Allah I says:

وَ قَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُوْنِىْۤ أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ .

wa qaala rabbu-kumu’dʻoo-nee astajib lakum.

“And your Lord said: “Call on Me; I will answer you.” (40:60)[45]

When Exiting the Home

بِسْمِ اللهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ عَلَى اللهِ .

bismi’Llaahi’r-raḥmaani’r-raḥeem.

“I begin with the name of Allah, (and) I have placed my trust in Him.”

 

When Entering the Masjid

أَللّٰهُمَّ افْتَحْ لِىْۤ أَبْوَابَ رَحْمَتِكَ .

Allaahumma’ftaḥ lee abwaaba raḥmati-ka.

“O Allah, open up for me the doors of Your mercy.”

When Exiting the Masjid

اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّىْ أَسْئَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ وَ رَحْمَتِكَ .

Allaahumma innee as’alu-ka min faḍli-ka wa raḥmati-k(a).

“O Allah, I ask You for Your favours and Your mercy.”

Upon Waking Up

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ الَّذِىْۤ أَحْيَانَا بَعْدَ مَا أَمَاتَنَا وَ إِلَيْهِ النُّشُوْرُ .

al-ḥamdu li’Llaahi’lladhee aḥyaa-naa baʻda maa amaata-naa wa ilayhi’n-nushoor(i).

“All praise is to Allah Who has brought us back to life after causing us to die[46], and to him is our return.”

Before Relieving Oneself[47]

أَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّىْۤ أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَ الْخَبَآئِثِ .

Allaahumma innee aʻoodhu bi-ka mina’l-khubuthi wa’l-khabaa’ith(i).

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the male and female jinns.”

After Relieving Oneself

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ الَّذِىْ أَذْهَبَ عَنِّى الْأَذٰى وَ عَافَانِىْ .

al-ḥamdu li’Llaahi’lladhee adh’haba an’ni’l-adhaa wa ʻaafaa-nee.

“All praise is to Allah Who removed distress from me and gave me relief.”

When Finishing a Meal

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ الَّذِىْۤ أَطْعَمَنَا وَ سَقَانَا وَ جَعَلَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ .

al-ḥamdu li’Llaahi’lladhee aṭʻama-naa wa saqaa-naa wa jaʻala-naa mina’l-muslimeen(a).

“All praise is to Allah Who gave us to eat, gave us to drink, and made us Muslims.”

When Eating at Someone’s Home

أَللّٰهُمَّ أَطْعِمْ مَّنْ أَطْعَمَنِىْ وَاسْقِ مَنْ سَقَانِىْ .

Allaahumma aṭʻim man aṭʻama-nee wa’sqi man saqaa-nee.

“O Allah, feed whoever has fed me, and give to drink whoever has given me to drink.”

When Dressing

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ الَّذِىْ كَسَانِىْ مَاۤ أُوَارِيَ بِهٖ عَوْرَتِىْ وَ أَتَجَمَّلُ بِهٖ فِىْ حَيَاتِىْ.

al-ḥamdu li’Llaahi’lladhee kasaa-nee maa uwaariya bi-hee ʻawratee wa atajammalu bi-hee fee ḥayaatee.

“All praise is to Allah Who has clothed me by which I cover my nakedness, and by which I beautify my life.”

When Mounting a Ride

أَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ سُبْحَانَ الَّذِىْ سَخَّرَ لَنَا هٰذَا وَ مَا كُنَّا لَهٗ مُقْرِنِيْنَ وَ إِنَّاۤ إِلٰى رَبِّنَا لَمُنْقَلِبُوْنَ .

al-ḥamdu li’Llaahi subḥaana’lladhee sakhkhara haadhaa wa maa kunnaa la-hoo muqrineena wa innaa ilaa rabbi-naa la-munqaliboon(a).

“All praise is to Allah, the Glorified, Who has made it subservient to us, when it was beyond us to make it subservient. Surely, we will return to our Lord.”

On Laylat al-Qadr ليلة ُالقدر (Night of Power) and Laylat al-Baraa’ah ليلة ُالبرائَة (Night of Liberation)

أَللّٰهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ الْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنَّا يَا غَفُوْرُ .

Allaahumma inna-ka ʻafuwwun tuḥibbu’l-ʻafwa faʻfu ʻannaa yaa ghafoor(u).

“O Allah, certainly You are the Forgiving, You love to forgive, hence forgive us, O Most Forgiving One.”

When Visiting a Cemetery

أَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ يَاۤ أَهْلَ الْقُبُوْرِ ، يَغْفِرُ اللهُ لَنَا وَ لَكُمْ ، وَ أَنْتُمْ سَلَفُنَا وَ نَحْنُ بِالْأَثَرِ .

as-salaamu ʻalaykum yaa ahla’l-quboor(i); yaghfiru’Llaahu la-naa wa la-kum, wa antum salafu-naa wa naḥnu bi’l-athar(i).

“Peace be with you O dwellers in graves. May Allah forgive us and you; you have gone before us and we are to follow.”

When Looking into a Mirror

أَللّٰهُمَّ حَسَّنْتَ خَلْقِىْ فَحَسِّنْ خُلُقِىْ .

Allaahumma ḥassanta khalqee fa-ḥassin khuluqee.

“O Allah, you have made me beautiful, hence make my character good.”

When Observing the Moon

أَللّٰهُمَّ أَهِلَّهٗ عَلَيْنَا بِالْيُمْنِ وَالْإِيْمَانِ وَالسَّلَامَةِ وَالإِسْلَامِ وَالتَّوْفِيْقِ لِمَا تُحِبُّ وَ تَرْضٰى رَبِّىْ وَ رَبُّكَ اللهُ .

Allaahumma ahilla-hoo ʻalay-naa bi’l-yumni wa’l-eemaani wa’s-salaamati wa’l-islaami wa’t-tawfeeqi limaa tuḥibbu wa tarḍaa, rabbee wa rabbu-ka’Llaah(u).

“O Allah, raise this moon over us with blessing, faith, peace and security, and with the ability for us to do what You love and are pleased with. (O moon,) my Lord and your Lord is Allah.”

When Afflicted with a Calamity

إِنَّا لِلّٰهِ  وَ إِنَّاۤ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُوْنَ . أَللّٰهُمَّ عِنْدَكَ أَحْتَسِبُ مُصِيْبَتِىْ فَأَجِرْنِىْ فِيْهَا وَ أَبْدِلْنِىْ مِنْهَا خَيْرًا .

innaa li’Llaahi wa innaa ilay-hi raajiʻoon(a). Allaahumma ʻinda-ka aḥtasibu muṣeebatee fa-ajirnee fee-haa wa abdil-nee min-haa khayra(n).

“Surely, we belong to Allah and to him we shall return. O Allah, I hope for a reward from You regarding this calamity of mine, thus, recompense me for it and change it for me for the better.”

When in Debt or Concern

أَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّىْ أَعُوْذُ  بِكَ مِنَ الْهَمِّ وَالْحُزْنِ  و أَعُوْذُ  بِكَ مِنْ غَلَبَةِ الدَّيْنِ وَ قَهْرِ الرِّجَالِ .

Allaahumma innee aʻoodhu bi-ka mina’l-hammi wa’l-ḥuzni wa aʻoodhu bi-ka min ghalabati’d-dayni wa qahri’r-rijaal(i).

“O Allah, surely I seek refuge with You from anxiety and grief, and I seek refuge with You from being overwhelmed with debt and encroachments of people.”

 

 

THE END - WITH PRAISE TO ALLAH (subhana-Hu wa-ta'ala)



[1] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Maa’idah (5), Verse 6.

[2] If a tooth-stick is not available, a toothbrush may be used, otherwise the right index finger.

[3] This is known as khilaal.

[4] This is the direction of the Holy Kaʻbah in the city of Makkah.

[5] If one is junub, i.e. in a state of janabah requiring a bath.

[6] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Maa’idah (5), Verse 6.

[7] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Maa’idah (5), Verse 6.

[8] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Maa’idah (5), Verse 58.

[9] This is the khuṭbah of the Jumuʻah prayer, or that of the two ʻEeds.

[10] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Baqarah (2), Verses 2-3.

[11] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Baqarah (2), Verse 238.

[12] Holy Qur’an, Soorat an-Noor (24), Verse 37.

[13] They perform their prayers at incorrect times, or they are irregular in performing them.

[14] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Maaʻoon (107), Verses 4-5.

[15] Holy Qur’an, Soorat Maryam (19), Verse 59.

[16] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Muddaththir (74), Verses 40-44.

[17] Holy Qur’an, Soorat Ibrahim (14), Verse 40.

[18] Holy Qur’an, Soorat Maryam (19), Verses 30-31.

[19] Holy Qur’an, Soorat Luqman (31), Verse 17.

[20] Holy Qur’an, Soorat at-Tawbah (9), Verse 71.

[21] Holy Qur’an, Soorat Hood (11), Verse 114.

[22] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Baqarah (2), Verse 238.

[23] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Israa’ (17), Verse 78.

[24] This is the consecratory takbeer (taḥreemah).

[25] Thanaa’: glorification of Allah I.

[26] Tasmiyah means to pronounce, “bismi’Llaahi’r-rahmaani’r-raheem.” It is also known as ‘bismillaah’ and ‘basmalah’.

[27] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Faatiḥah (1), Verse 1-7.

[28] The minimum amount to be recited is three short verses or one long verse that is equivalent to three short verses.

[29] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Ikhlaaṣ (112), Verse 1-4.

[30] Holy Qur’an, Soorat an-Nisaa’ (4), Verse 103.

[31] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Baqarah (2), Verse 255.

[32] Holy Qur’an, Soorat an-Nisaa’ (4), Verse 103.

[33] This is known as ‘al-Fajr aṣ-Ṣaadiq’.

[34] This ‘experience’ is based on observations made in the Indo-Pak subcontinent. It differs with regards to other geographic locations, depending on their proximity with the equator.

[35] When someone sneezes, he says, “al-ḥamdu li’Llaah (All praise is to Allah),” the one who hears him responds by saying, “yarḥamuka’Llaah (May Allah I have mercy on you),” and then the one who sneezed says, “yahdeekumu’Llaahu wa yuṣliḥu baalakum (May Allah I give you guidance and make your affairs good).” (al-Bukhari)

[36] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Baqarah (2), Verse 43.

[37] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Jumuʻah (62), Verse 9.

[38] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Baqarah (2), Verse 185.

[39] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Baqarah (108), Verse 2.

[40] The duration between prayers varies according to the time of the year; it is shorter in the winter when the days are shorter and longer in the summer when the days are longer.

[41] This Takbeer is different to the one pronounced during prayer. (See Wording of Takbeer)

[42] Holy Qur’an, Soorat at-Tawbah (9), Verse 84.

[43] See ‘Times Detested for Prayer’ in the relevant section of Prayer.

[44] See ‘Times Detested for Prayer’ in the relevant section of Prayer.

[45] Holy Qur’an, Soorat al-Mu’min (40), Verse 60.

[46] Sleep is a lesser form of death.

[47] When one is about to enter the lavatory, or any other place, in order to answer the call of nature.

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